But it is when we come to Gematria (substituting numbers for letters) that the most wonderful results are seen. These results may be stated thus, briefly: That the names of the LORD's people are multiples of eight, while the names of those who apostatized, or rebelled, or who were in any sense His enemies, are multiples of thirteen. This statement, if it be proved, is one of the greatest evidences of verbal inspiration which the world has yet seen. The effect of this law can hardly be estimated in establishing the presence of an ever-present working of the Holy Spirit in the very words and even the letters of Scripture. No human foresight or arrangement could have secured such a result beforehand; no human powers could have carried it out in such perfection. No matter where we look, we find the working of the law without cessation, without a break, without a flaw from beginning to end.
How does the number 8 and number 13 represent man's rebellion?
The record in Genesis 6, which gives the apostasy of man, leading up to the judgment of the Flood, is stamped and branded throughout with significant numbers:
- Verses 1-3 amount to 7272 (6x1212).
- Verse 2 amounts to 3198 (13x6x41).
- Verse 4, "the same were mighty men which were of old, men of renown" 1703 (13x131).
- Verses 5-7, which speak concerning the corruption 10335 (13x795).
- Verses 1-7 21672 (62x602).
But now contrast verses 8-10 of Genesis 6 concerning Noah -- "But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD," etc., 7008 (8x876):
Verses 11-17, the end of all flesh, the command to build the ark, and the threat of the Flood 33540 (13x2580).
Verses 14-16, concerning the ark 17668 (4x4417).
Verses 12, 13 and 17 together, concerning the violence and corruption 13320 (666x20).
Verses 18-22, which speak of the covenant to save Noah and his house, while they are stamped with the number 13 (which is the number of atonement as well as of sin, see below), are stamped also with the triple five, the 15 of perfect grace by which Noah was called, and by the number 2, which tells of incarnation and deliverance. The gematria of these verses is 15002 (13x1154).
The Canaanite Names
|Canaan ||190 |
|And ||6 |
|Sidon ||154 |
|Heth ||408 |
|The Jebusite ||93 |
|The Amorite ||256 |
|The Girgashite ||521 |
|The Hivite ||29 |
|The Arkite ||385 |
|The Sinite ||135 |
|The Arvadite ||226 |
|The Zemarite ||345 |
|The Hamathite ||463 |
|(132x19) ||3211 |
What are the generations of Abraham?
Abraham had eight sons. Seven of them were born "after the flesh," while the eighth was "by promise."
|(8x31) Abraham ||248 |
|(8x2x13) Isaac* ||208 |
|(8x57) ||456 |
* Isaac's household was a divided one, as well as Jacob's; hence we have the 13 as a factor as well as 8.
|(7x2x13) Jacob ||182 |
|Leah ||36 |
|Rachel ||238 |
|(8x57) ||456 |
Leah's Six Sons
|Reuben ||259 |
|Simeon ||466 |
|Levi ||46 |
|Judah ||30 |
|Issachar ||830 |
|Zebulon ||95 |
|(13x2+1700) ||1726 |
Add parents' names (Jacob 182, and Leah 36), and we have 1944 (8x243).
Rachel's Two Sons
(Spelling taken as in Genesis 35:22-26)
|Joseph ||156 |
|Benjamin ||152 |
|(77x4) ||308 |
|Bilhah ||42 |
|Dan ||54 |
|Naphtali ||570 |
| ||666 |
|Zilpah ||122 |
|Gad ||7 |
|Asher ||501 |
|Add Leah ||36 |
| ||666 |
The whole family of Jacob, including Ephraim (331) and Manasseh (395) = 4512 (83x4000).
Why is one of Israel's twelve tribes always OMITTED from lists?
The Twelve Tribes are enumerated in some 18 (3x6) different ways, in which one is always omitted. For there were 12 tribes; but there were also 13, telling of God's design for perfect government, and of man's apostasy from that government.
In Deuteronomy 32 Simeon is left out.
In Revelation 7 Dan and Ephraim are omitted (Joseph and Levi being inserted).
Generally it is Levi that is omitted.
Arranged in their 4 camps, as in Numbers 2, their value is 3736 (8x467).
Arranged as in Revelation 7, the value (according to the Greek spelling, of course) is 8480 (8x1060).
Arranged as in Numbers 13:3-16, in connection with the rebellion on the return of the 12 spies, we see defection at once; for all the representatives of the tribes failed except Caleb and Joshua (788).
Who are the Edom's Dukes?
Genesis 36:40-43 is by gematria 9880: thus--
- Verse 40 = 5453
- Verse 41 = 670
- Verse 42 = 1340
- Verse 43 = 2417 (as far as "he is Esau")
- Total 9880 (13x760)
The word Pwl) (al-luph), "duke," amounts to 117 (13x9).
And eleven times repeated, it is still a multiple of 13, viz., 1287 (13x99).
The Abraham - Keturah Group
|(8x31) Abraham ||248 |
|(8x40) Keturah ||320 |
|Zimran ||297 |
|Jokshan ||460 |
|Medan ||94 |
|Midian ||104 |
|Ishbak ||412 |
|Shuah ||314 |
|(13x173) ||2249 |
in Genesis 25:3
|Shebah ||303 |
|Dedan ||58 |
|Sons of Dedan ||120 |
|(13x37) ||481 |
|Asshurim ||547 |
|Letushim ||385 |
|Leummim ||121 |
|(13x81) ||1053 |
The Sons of Midian
|Sons of Midian ||166 |
|Ephah ||165 |
|Epher ||350 |
|Hanoch ||58 |
|Abidah ||87 |
|Eldaah ||110 |
|(13x72) ||936 |
The phrase which concludes the lists, "All these are the sons of Keturah," has for its value 468 (13x36), making with the numbers above 5213 for the whole group, or 13x401.
The whole passage is also a multiple of 13.
The Incestuous Children of Lot
|Ammon ||166 |
|Ammi ||120 |
|(13x22) ||286 |
Ben-Ammi (children of Ammi) 182 (13x14)
The whole passage (Genesis 19:31-38) is a multiple of 13.
The number thirteen and human adversaries
Human adversaries present the peculiar phenomena of being multiples of thirteen:
* Nimrod exhibits a number connected with Antichrist, being 294, or 7x42.
** The whole of Psalm 52 = 19572 (42x466).
Who were the Adversaries of Christ?
"The Scribes" = 780 (13x60)
"The Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites" = 2704 (132x16)
"Woe!" = 481 (13x37)
"Leaven of Pharisees and Sadducees" = 3718 (132x22)
"A wicked and adulterous generation" = 1365 (13x105)
The Scriptures concerning Barabbas
Matthew 27:20: "But the chief priests and elders persuaded the people that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus" = 10127 (13x779)
Matthew 27:16: "And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas" = 2743 (13x211)
Mark 15:6: "Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired" = 910 (13x70)
Luke 23:18: "And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas" = 9347 (13x719)
John 18:40: "Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber." In this verse we have--
"Then cried they all again" = 2600 (13x200)
"Not this man, but = 1300 (13x100)
"Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber" = 1833 (13x141)
Total = 5733 (13x441)
The Scriptures concerning Judas Iscariot
Luke 22:3: "Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve" = 8359 (13x643)
Verse 47, "And he that was called Judas, one of the twelve" = 3458 (13x266)
John 12:4: "Judas Iscariot, he that should betray Him" = 4511 (13x347)
John 13:26: "Jesus answered, He it is to whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped it. And when He had dipped the sop, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon" = 19435 (13x1495)
Matthew 26:48: "Now he that betrayed Him gave them a sign, saying Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is He; hold Him fast" = 9867 (13x759)
So with Acts 1:16; Mark 14:44,45, and all the corresponding passages.
Simon Magus (with art.) = 1170 (13x90)
Elymas = 676 (132x4)
"Certain sons of one Sceva, a Jew, and chief of the priests, seven" (Acts 19:14) = 4953 (13x381)
The Adversaries named by the apostle Paul
The Whole Group
Hymenaeus and Alexander (1Timothy 1:20)
Phygellus and Hermogenes (2Timothy 1:15)
Hymenaeus and Philetus (2Timothy 2:17)
Demas (2Timothy 4:10)
Total = 5226 (13x402)
13:1: "The sand of the sea" = 1716 (13x132)
Verse 11, The whole verse = 6318 (13x486)
qhrion "theerion," beast = 247 (13x19)
allo qhrion "hallo theerion," another beast = 378 (9x42)
"He had two horns" = 1521 (132x9)
"And he had two horns like a lamb" = 2704 (132x16)
Verse 15, "The image of the beast" = 1482 (13x114)
Verse 18, "The mark of the beast" = 2483 (13x191)
17:1: "The great whore" = 403 (13x31)
Verse 5, "The mother of harlots" = 2756 (13x212)
19:20: "The beast . . . and with him the false prophet who doeth wonders before him" = 8489 (13x653)
"The harlot, the beast, and the false prophet" = 3510 (13x270).
The whole verse = 25441 (13x1957)
22:15: "Dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whatsoever loveth and maketh a lie" = 8710 (13x670)
8:10: "A great star" = 858 (13x66)
8:11: "Wormwood" = 1040 (13x80)
20:8: "Gog" = 806 (13x62) (Greek)
Thus, no matter in what way we look at the recurrence of these two numbers, we see the same law pervading the history. A few miscellaneous examples must suffice:--
In Genesis 10 we have the scattering of the nations, and their division through the earth. It happened in the days of Peleg, the gematria of whose name is one Hundred and thirteen. The Scripture recording it (Genesis 10:25-29) = 10647 (13x63)
Salah (Peleg's grandfather) was 338 (132x2)
When Uzziah apostatised (2Chronicles 26) it was after he had reigned 52 years (4x13)
Jeroboam II had 40 years of prosperity, and then 12 of apostasy = 52 (4x13)
Joash reigned 39 years (3x13), and then apostatised (2Chronicles 23, 24)
In the 13th year of Josiah, Jeremiah began to prophesy against the apostasy of Judah.
Cain has no chronology, and Saul has none, except the last year, which was the first of David's, and of which 13 is a factor.
Solomon was 13 years building his own house, which was so full of apostasy. (But he was 7 years building the LORD's house.)
How many people died in Korah's Rebellion?
The number of those who died in Korah's rebellion was 250 + 14700 = 14950 (13x1150). See Numbers 16:35,49.
Thirteen and the Valley of Hinnom
The valley of Hinnom (or of the son or children of Hinnom) occurs 13 times. It was the scene of the idolatrous and inhuman rites of Moloch introduced by Solomon (1Kings 11:7). The casting of children into the fire in that valley made it the fit symbol of the future punishment of sinners, who are to be cast into the lake of fire, and gave rise to the word Gehenna, from the Hebrew Mn$@hi )ygi Gee-Hinnom, Valley of Hinnom. The 13 occurrences, which contain the whole history of the valley, are worthy of connected study (Joshua 15:8,18, 18:16, twice; 2Kings 23:10; 2Chronicles 28:3, 33:6; Nehemiah 11:30; Jeremiah 7:31,32, 19:2,6, 32:35).
Thus the two numbers 8 and 13 are like two threads--gold and crimson--which run through the whole of Divine Revelation, continually crossing and recrossing each other.
There is, however, one very important branch of this part of our subject still remaining.
The Connection of the Number 13 with Substitution and Atonement
The savior, though without sin, was "made sin," or a sin-offering, for His people. He was "wounded for our transgressions," and bruised for their iniquities. He was, in fact, "NUMBERED WITH THE TRANSGRESSORS" (Isaiah 53:12).
Therefore this number is not only the all-pervading factor of SIN, but also of sin's atonement. It is not only the number which brands the sinner as a rebel against God, but it is the number borne by the sinner's Substitute.
His very names in the Old Testament, before the work of Atonement was entered on or accomplished, are all multiples of 13, just as His names, afterwards in the New Testament and when the work of Atonement was carried out, are all multiples of 8.
The Old Testament names are:--
Jehovah = 26 (13x2)
Adonai = 65 (13x5)
Ha-Elohim = 91 (13x7)
Messiah, as given in Psalm 2, a form in which it occurs 10 times, "His Anointed" = 364 (13x28)--the very number of Satan himself.
But note here the marvellous combination of the other factors, 2, 5, and 7, the significance of which we need not dwell upon after all that we have said about them as indicating incarnation, grace, and spiritual perfection.
Truly, it is written, "Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree." Hence the numerical value of the very word "anathema", curse, is 546 (13x42), and it occurs 6 times.
How is the number thirteen exhibited in the Lamb of God?
Genesis 4 which records the first type of this Lamb of God, the sinner's substitute, exhibits the number 13.
"And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock, and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and his offering." The verse amounts to 2093 (13x161).
Verse 7, where we have a further reference to this offering = 5421 (13x3x139)
Abel suffered; Cain sinned; Seth was the substitute for Abel. Hence the three names are:
|Abel ||37 |
|Cain ||160 |
|Seth ||700 |
|(13x69) ||897 |
Their whole history (Genesis 4:1-25) amounts to 76882 (13x5914).
How does the number 8 represent the Apocalypse?
We see not only the number seven stamping the book throughout with spiritual perfection, but as it contains also the history which leads up to resurrection and the new heavens and earth, the number eight is also seen.
There are 24 elders (3x8)
Four beasts, each with six wings = 24 (3x8)
Twelve thousand from each tribe, 12,000 = (8x15x100)
144,000 for all the tribes = 82x152x10; the same number of virgins who follow the Lamb
1,600 furlongs, the measure of the winepress (8x8x25), or (82x52)
The 1,000 years (8x125)
The 12,000 cubits' length of the "four-square" city (8x15x100)
Additional comments on the Biblical Meaning of 8 *
The number 8, which comes after the number (7) which signifies completeness, symbolizes a new beginning, or a new order of things, a new creation, a new birth, and the resurrection to eternal life.
A musical scale has 7 notes, with the 8th note beginning a new scale an octave from the first note. Eight people were carried in the ark for a new beginning after the flood. Four is the number of the first creation, and 8 (4 + 4) pictures the new creation after the flood.
David, the 8th son of Jesse, was the new king to replace Saul.