The Roman Empire

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Study of the Roman Empire is essential in order to gain a clearer understanding of the events and teachings found in the New Testament. They played both a positive and negative role in the early history of Christians delineated in the Bible. Even after the close of the New Testament, the histories of both this great world power and Christianity would intertwine for many years to come.

On the positive side, the Roman Empire helped pave the way not only for Christianity to start but also to rapidly spread throughout the world. It was under the relative peace of Emperor Augustus that Jesus was born. Their influence, however, was many times negative. It was Herod the Great, the officially-appointed ruler of Judea, who sought to kill a newborn Christ (Matthew 2). Later, it became a pawn in the hands of Jewish leaders, who used its authority to murder Jesus Christ (Matthew 27). Emperor Nero began the first of ten waves of persecution against Christians by killing both Apostles Paul and Peter.

The New Testament has 140+ provincial references.
Where are these provinces on a map?
Why are they important?

Relationship with Christianity

Did the apostle Peter die in Rome?
Did Peter REALLY die in Rome? How long was he in the city? Could he have perished somewhere else?

Did ancient Romans write about Jesus?
Did the Empire officially record events like Jesus' trial or crucifixion? Did they ever mention Nazareth, the hometown of Christ?

Roman Maps

Animated map of the Empire's Rise and Fall View

Was it the greatest world power? View

Map of Roman power at its peak View

Under Diocletian and Constantine View

Which rulers heard Paul preach? View

Rome in the First Century A.D. View

Timeline related to Old Testament Events   View

Map of Byzantine Empire in 1025 A.D. View



The Roman Coliseum
The largest stadium built by an Emperor, it seated more than 50,000 spectators. It hosted gladiator games and even held naval battles within its walls.

The Appian Way
The Way was the first and most important road built by the Empire. Countless troops used the Appian Way. The crucifixion of the defeated slave army of Spartacus occurred on the road. The apostle Paul used the Way to travel to prison.

Circus Maximus
The first and largest circus ever built, it could hold up to 150,000-seated visitors. It hosted games, festivals, chariot races and the martyrdom of countless Christians.

The Forum
The Forum was the center of public life. It held elections, trials, speeches, and business deals. It is the most FAMOUS meeting place in all of human history.

Life and Church

How and when did the city of Rome begin? View

Why was it difficult to get citizenship? Read

Did Caesar have a child with Cleopatra? Read

Did Christians like the Roman games? Read

Was apostle Paul a citizen of the Empire? Read

What laws did Jesus break? Read

How long was Paul a prisoner? Read

Do Popes have the keys to heaven? Read

Did Apostle Paul die in Rome? Read


Nazareth Inscription Stone
A marble tablet, dated shortly after the death of Jesus in 41 A.D., contains an edict from Caesar showing the early preaching of the gospel within the Empire.

Michelangelo and Sistine Chapel
The Last Judgment fresco, on the altar wall of the Sistine chapel, is considered Michelangelo's crowning work. It is the largest fresco painted in the 16th century. It depicts several beliefs including an eternal hell. It also displays a humorous caricature of one of his harshest critics.

Saint Peter's Square
The square, ruled by the Roman Catholics, is the centerpiece of Vatican City. It is within an area that is the world's smallest state.

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