Barnabas to Gallio

Apostle Paul Important People
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Which New Testament people had an important connection to Apostle Paul? Who were his close friends? Who sought to destroy his efforts? Whom did he resurrected from the dead? Who were the women who aided Paul's evangelistic work? Whose offspring died when Mount Vesuvius erupted?

The list on this page offers information on people from Paul's fellow apostle Barnabas to Rome's Proconsul of Achaia named Gallio. It includes every New Testament location, in the King James Bible, they are mentioned in connection to the Apostle Paul.

It must be noted that the New Testament, for several people connected to Paul, reveals only the briefest (if any) information beyond their name. Where possible the list includes background data gleaned from Biblical commentaries and historians like Josephus, the traditions of early church "fathers" and other extra-biblical writings.

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Second Missionary Journey Map

Acts 4:36, 9:27, 11:22 - 30, 12:25, 13, 14,
15, 1Corinthians 9:6, Galatians 2:1, 9, 13
Colossians 4:10

Barnabas' name means "son of consolation." He was a Levite from Cyprus who was one of the most generous, faithful and loving Christians in the early church.

Barnabas is the first person to vouch for Saul's (Paul's) Christian character when the Jerusalem church was suspicious of his professed conversion. He was a trusted leader among Christians who was chosen to serve the rapidly expanding number of believers in Syrian Antioch (Acts 11:22 - 24). When the needs in Antioch continued to expand, he enlisted the help of Paul, who was living at home in Tarsus.

Barnabas was commissioned as an apostle and evangelist on the same day as Paul (Acts 13:1 - 3). He traveled with him on his first missionary journey but later separated due to a disagreement over John Mark. Some commentaries speculate, without proof, that Barnabas was one of the seventy men trained by Jesus (Luke 10).

Sculpture of Bernice, daughter of Herod Agrippa
Bust of Bernice
Pix courtesy of Sailko

Acts 25:13, 23, 26:30

Bernice is the daughter of Herod Agrippa I (a grandson of Herod the Great) who ruled over Judea. She had at least one sister named Drusilla (and possible another named Mariamne) and a brother Herod Agrippa II.

Bernice accompanied her brother Agrippa II when he traveled to Caesarea to welcome Festus, the new Roman procurator of Judea who succeeded Felix Antonius. They both heard the Apostle Paul's defense of himself after he had been in Caesarea's prison for two years.

The Jewish historian Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews, Book 20, Chapter 7) and other writers suggest that she not only lived with her brother Agrippa II but also had an incestuous relationship with him.

Please see listing for Augustus.

2Timothy 4:13

Paul requested something special from Timothy just before his martyrdom. He asked, "When you come, bring the chest that I left in Troas with Carpus, and the books - especially the parchments" (2Timothy 4:13). Carpus, a Christian of integrity, was entrusted to protect the apostle's enduring gift to the church - his writings. He played a little known but critical role in the canonization of the New Testament!

"Paul also wanted Timothy to bring several important items needed to complete the canonization of his Epistles . . . We can deduce that this chest contained Paul's own writings - as well as extra sheets of parchment or animal skins that had been made into blank pages for writing.

"Once Timothy and Mark arrived with these items, Paul could then add the final inspired additions to his Epistles" (Holy Bible, Faithful Version, second edition, chapter 9).

His completed writings, as well as the work of other inspired authors, would ultimately find their way to the apostle John. Near the end of the first century A.D., as the last of the original twelve disciples still living, he would compile and complete what we call the New Testament.

1Corinthians 1:11

Chloe was a woman whose household informed Paul about the divisions and arguments taking place in the Corinthian church. It is unclear whether Chloe lived in Corinth or Ephesus.

2Timothy 4:21

Claudia was a female Christian who is mentioned sending her greetings to Timothy through Paul. It is speculated that she may have been the wife of Pudens. Nothing more is known about her.

Claudius Caesar
Acts 11:28, 18:2

Claudius Caesar was the fourth Emperor over the Roman Empire (the first three being Augustus, Tiberius and Caligula), reigning from 41 to 54 A.D.

Claudius, soon after becoming Emperor, issued an edict re-establishing the rights of Jews to keep their "ancient customs" without being hindered (Antiquities of the Jews, Book 19, Chapter 5, Sections 2 - 3). This right, asserted by Augustus and Tiberius, had been rejected by Caligula, who went so far as to have a statue of himself placed in Jerusalem's temple!

Although Jews, under the Emperor, were granted the right to practice their beliefs, their numbers got so great in Rome that they were forbidden to assemble. Evidence suggests that the regular disturbances caused by the Jews in the city led to the edict banishing them (and Christians) from the capital. Over time, however, the Jews and Christians returned to the city.

Philippians 4:3

Clement was considered a coworker in the gospel by the Apostle Paul and specifically mentioned as having his name written in the Book of Life. Origen, a third century A.D. Catholic theologian, believed this Clement became the Catholic Church's fourth Pope.

2Timothy 4:10

Crescens, a Christian, is mentioned by Paul as having journeyed to the Roman province of Galatia. This trip took place only a short time before the apostle's martyrdom in Rome. Some have speculated, without evidence, that he was one of seventy people Jesus personally trained (Luke 10).

Acts 18:8, 1Corinthians 1:14

Crispus was an educated Jewish man of high character who was the leader (ruler) of Corinth's synagogue. He, along with his household, became Christians during Paul's roughly 18-month stay in the city. Crispus and Gaius were the only two people in Corinth personally baptized by the apostle.

Acts 17:34

Damaris' name means "little woman" or "heifer." She is one of only two people listed as having converted to Christianity during Paul's brief evangelism of Athens. Luke may have recorded her name due to her being an important or noteworthy person. The apostle's stirring message to the Athenians, given from the Areopagus (Acts 17:19), can be found in Acts 17:22 - 31.

Hill of Areopagus in Athens
Hill of Areopagus (Mars' Hill) in Athens

Colossians 4:14, Philemon 1:24
2Timothy 4:10

Paul initially considered Demas a fellow laborer in the gospel. He was with the apostle during his first imprisonment in Rome that took place at the end of his fourth missionary journey. A few years later, however, in his last letter to Timothy, Paul laments that Demas forsook him to pursue what the world had to offer.

Acts 19:24, 38

Demetrius was a wealthy and important Ephesian silversmith who made his fortune by promoting idolatry. He, and his fellow craftsmen, made small shrines, idols and alike themed around the pagan goddess Diana (Artemis). Ephesus' huge idolatrous temple is today considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

Demetrius, fearing the gospel would continue to effect, negatively, his business, stirred up the pagans in Ephesus to oppose the apostle. Although the tumult he caused was quieted by a city official, it hastened Paul's exit of the city.

Dionysius the Areopagite
Acts 17:34

Dionysius is one of only two people specifically named as having converted to Christianity during Paul's brief evangelism of Athens. Dionysius was likely a prominent citizen of Athens and a member of the Areopagus, the Athenian Supreme Court.

Ruins of Dionysius Theater in Athens
Ruins of Dionysius Theater in Athens

Acts 24:24

Drusilla was the great-granddaughter of Herod the Great and daughter of Herod Agrippa I. She converted to Judaism at a young age and married Roman governor Felix when she was around 16. Drusilla heard Paul preach the gospel during the summer of 58 A.D. while he was in state custody in Caesarea.

Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews (Book 20, Chapter 7, Section 2), notes that Drusilla's son Marcus Agrippa, and his wife, were killed when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D.

Epenetus (Epaenetus)
Romans 16:5

Epenetus was one of the first converts to Christianity in the Roman province of Achaia. This province included the cities of Athens and Corinth. It is unknown whether or not Paul's preaching led Epenetus to become a Christian.

Colossians 1:7, 4:12, Philemon 1:23

Epaphras, who lived in Colosse (Colossae), was considered a faithful fellow servant of Christ. The apostle commends him to the church as someone who was always praying for their spiritual wellbeing. Epaphras not only spearheaded the spreading of the gospel in Colosse but also in nearby Laodicea and Hierapolis.

Epaphras, at the time of the writing of Philemon, was a fellow prisoner with Paul in Rome.

Coin of Colosse (Colossae)
Colosse coin showing pagan god
Artemis driving chariot of two deers

Philippians 2:25 - 30, 4:18, 23

Epaphroditus was specially selected by those in Philippi to deliver financial support, clothes and other necessities to the apostle while he was a prisoner in Rome (late 61 to early 63 A.D.). He was a leader in the Philippian church who was considered a "fellow soldier" in spreading the gospel and serving the church.

Epaphroditus, while attending to Paul's needs in prison, gets so sick that he almost dies (Philippians 2:27). The apostle commended him to the Philippians for this selfless act and willingness to place his own life at risk for the cause of Christ. His extended sickness is one example that Paul (and others) did not have the miraculous power to heal someone whenever they wished.

After Epaphroditus' lengthy recovery he was sent back home with the Philippian epistle to deliver.

Acts 19:22, Romans 16:23, 2Timothy 4:20

The name of Erastus is recorded three times in the New Testament. It is unclear, however, whether all these references are to the same person.

Paul, during his extended stay in Ephesus, sent Erastus and Timothy ahead of him into Macedonia to help bolster the churches in the area. Later, in the book of Romans written from Corinth, Erastus "the steward of the city" (Romans 16:23) sent his greetings to those in Rome through the book of Romans. The final time the name Erastus is used is in 2Timothy, where it is stated he was living in Corinth at the time of the letter.

2Timothy 4:21

Eubulus was a Roman Christian who sent his greetings to Timothy through the last letter Paul would author before his death. Nothing more is known about him.

2Timothy 1:5

Eunice was the mother of Timothy, Paul's traveling companion, fellow evangelist and close friend. She was a Jew by birth who married a Greek (Gentile, see Acts 16:1) and lived in Lystra. She later converted to Christianity along with her mother Lois.

Both Eunice and Lois studied the Old Testament and passed on their knowledge to young Timothy. In his last, and quite affectionate, letter to Timothy, Paul encourages his friend by reminding him his "unfeigned faith" came from his mother and grandmother.

Euodia (Euodias)
Philippians 4:2 - 3

Euodia was a prominent female Christian living in Philippi, where the church first took root among the city's females (Acts 16:13 - 15). Paul, in his letter to the church, asked her and Syntyche, another Christian lady, to settle their differences. Both of them had helped him in the work of the gospel. It is unknown the exact nature of their disagreement or whether it was successfully resolved.

Acts 20:9 - 10

Eutychus was a young man who, after falling asleep listening to Paul preach in Troas, fell out a window and died. The apostle went immediately to him and, after stretching himself on the young adult, miraculously healed him and brought him back to life! Eutychus is the only person recorded to have been resurrected by the apostle. Interestingly, Eutychus' name means "fortunate" or "well-fated!"

Acts 23:24 - 26, 24:3, 22 - 27, 25:14

Felix is Roman Procurator of Judea from 52 to 60 A.D. Before becoming Procurator he pursued, and married, Drusilla (a great-granddaughter of Herod the Great). Josephus discusses Felix in his Antiquities of the Jews, primarily in chapters 7 and 8 of book 20.

Paul is sent to Felix after accused of causing a riot at Jerusalem's temple (Acts 21). The Procurator, in spite of Paul's innocence, keeps him in Caesarea's prison for two years hoping to be bribed (Acts 24:26 - 27). In 60 A.D. Felix, who was known as a mean and cruel ruler, is replaced as Procurator by Porcius Festus.

Festus (Porcius Festus)
Acts 24:27, 25:1, 4, 9, 12 - 14, 22 - 24,
26:24 - 32

Festus was Roman Procurator of Judea from 60 to 62 A.D. According to Josephus, he ruled wisely and justly, in contrast to his predecessor Felix. He was commended for ridding the Judean countryside of Sicarii bandits who were terrorizing the people (Antiquities of the Jews, Book 20, Chapter 9, Section 10).

Festus, immediately after taking on his new responsibilities, revisits the case against Paul who had been languishing in Caesarea's prison for two years. His offer to hold the apostle's trial in Jerusalem is rejected. Paul requests, as a Roman citizen, that his trial be held before the Emperor in Rome.

1Corinthians 16:17

Fortunatus was a Christian in the Corinthian church. He traveled to see the apostle in Ephesus during his extended stay in the city (54 to 57 A.D.). The notation at the end of 1Corinthians, found in some Bible translations, asserts that he helped write the epistle that was dictated by Paul.

Acts 19:29, 20:4, 1Corinthians 1:14
Romans 16:23

There are two different and important New Testament individuals named Gaius connected to Paul.

Gaius from the city of Derbe in Macedonia (Acts 19:29, 20:4), along with others, accompanied Paul during his third missionary journey. During Paul's extensive evangelism of Ephesus, he was seized by a mob stirred up by those whose businesses were suffering due to the gospel's impact. He was released at the behest of the city's clerk.

Another man named Gaius lived in Corinth, a large metropolis in the Roman province of Achaia. He was converted through Paul's preaching and was one of only two Corinthians personally baptized by the apostle. Gaius provided a place in Corinth for the apostle to stay in during his short third missionary journey visit. He, and the Corinthian church, greeted their brethren in Rome through the book of Romans written from the prosperous city.

As a side note, no Biblical evidence exists that links either Gaius connected to Paul with the "beloved" elder Gaius to whom John addressed his third letter (3John 1:1).

Acts 18:12, 14, 17

Gallio was appointed the new Proconsul of the Roman province of Achaia during Paul's first visit to Corinth. After assuming his position, the city's Jews dragged the apostle before him with the accusation that he was, "persuading men to worship God contrary to the law" (Acts 18:13, HBFV).

Gallio abruptly, and wisely, refused to hear the case made against Paul. In fact, he was so irritated that a religious disagreement, and not a Roman law related matter, was brought before him that he drove the Jews from his presence!

It is uncertain whether Gallio was forced to commit suicide, or was put to death, under Nero around 65 A.D.

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Apostle Paul Important People!
Achaicus  to  Bar-jesus
Barnabas  to  Gallio
Gamaliel  to  Lucius
Luke  to  Persis
Peter  to  Sergius Paulus
Silas  to  Zenas the lawyer
Additional Study Materials
Why didn't Jesus bring peace to earth?
Prophecy between the Testaments
Map of Palestine under Herod the Great
Who were the apostle's relatives?

1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
Antiquities of the Jews by Josephus
Complete Book of Who's Who in the Bible
Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Hitchcock's Bible Names
Holman Bible Dictionary
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
Tyndale Bible Dictionary

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