Old Covenant versus New Covenant
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The Old Covenant was a physical (earth) based agreement that was initially made at Mount Sinai with the children of Israel. It required obedience to the letter of God's law. It promised that a person or a nation would be physically blessed (health, wealth, etc.) or cursed (e.g. poverty, captivity, etc.) depending on whether or not they obeyed all of God's written commandments and statutes. It was the Being who became Jesus Christ Who established the Covenant with Israel.
The New Covenant, in contrast to the Old, is spiritually based. It is based on obedience from the heart and a fulfilling of God's laws not only in the letter but also in their spiritual intent. It promises an eternal life full of love and glory for those who obey God and eternal death for those who completely reject submission to the Creator. The beginning words of the New Covenant were given by Jesus in Matthew chapters 5, 6, and 7, which is commonly referred to as the Sermon on the Mount.
| || |
|An agreement based |
on physical promises.
Deuteronomy 28; Leviticus 26
| || An agreement based |
on spiritual promises.
John 3:16; Hebrews 8:6, 9:15;
Romans 8; Luke 18:29-30
Exodus 12:48; John 7:22
| ||Circumcision (repentance) is |
of the heart (mind)
Acts 2:38, 3:19; Romans 2:25-29;
Philippians 3:3; Col. 2:11-13
|People were not given God's Spirit |
Hebrews 8:7-9; Matthew 5:21-45
| ||True Believers have God's Spirit |
Matthew 5:21-48, Romans 7:6,
Galatians 2:20; Hebrews 8:10-12
| || |
|If the letter of the law was obeyed a person could worship God through an earth-based tabernacle. |
Hebrews 9:13; Galatians 3:12;
Leviticus 18:5; 2 Corinthians 3:16
| ||Those who obey spiritually have one-on-one access to worship God through Christ Jesus. |
John 4:23-24, 16:23-27;
Hebrews 6:20, 10:23; Romans 8:9-39;
Ephesians 2:18-22; 2 Corinthians 3:6
|Had physical works of law, |
animal sacrifices, etc.
| ||Have Jesus' sacrifice, the fruits of |
God's spirit and good works.
Hebrews 9:10, 10:12, 13:15;
Galatians 5:22-24; Ephesians 2:10;
Romans 12:1-2; Matthew 19:17; Mark 15:15-18
| If God's law was transgressed a physical |
atonement was needed for most sins
while some required the death penalty.
Hebrews 9:7-10; 2 Corinthians 3
| || If God's spiritual law is transgressed, |
a believer can be forgiven upon repentance while
the unrepentant will receive a second death.
Hebrews 8:5, 9:1-28, 10:16-31;
Revelation 20:14-15, 21:8;
2 Corinthians 3
| A physical High Priest served |
in an earthly tabernacle.
Hebrews 8:3-5; Exodus 28:1
| || A spiritual High Priest, Jesus Christ, |
serves in a heavenly tabernacle.
Hebrews 4:14-16, 5:1-9, 7:17;
Hebrews 8:1-2, 9:11
| Animal sacrifices were made to justify |
a person to an earthly tabernacle.
Hebrews 5:1-3, 9:1-13
| || Jesus is the sacrifice offered, in a heavenly temple, in order to justify those who repent and are baptized |
Hebrews 7:25-27, 9:23-28
Acts 11:18; Galatians 2:20; Romans 3:24-25
| NO direct access available |
or offered to God the Father
Hebrews 9:6-8; 10:19
| ||Believers have immediate and |
direct access to their heavenly Father
Matthew 27:51; Hebrews 4:14-16;
Ephesians 7:25-27; John 16; Galatians 4:6-7;
Romans 8:15; Ephesians 2:18
|Could not make a person's conscience |
clean or perfect before God
Hebrews 9:9; 10:4, 11
| ||A believer's sins are spiritually forgiven. |
The spirit within them purges their conscience
Hebrews 10:14-17; 2 Corinthians 3:9;
Colossians 1:27; Matthew 5:48;
Philippians 2:5, 3:9-17; Ephesians 4