The Seven Churches of Revelation
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Smyrna, originally peopled by Asiatics known as the Lelages, is located 56 kilometers (35 miles) from Ephesus and 79 kilometers (49 miles) from Pergamos (Pergamon). It was one of the principal cities of Roman Asia and competed with Ephesus and Pergamos for the title "First City of Asia." Although the city was settled in the 11th century B.C., it did not begin to reach its height of importance until after Alexander the Great laid the foundation for a new city. The actual enlargement and fortification of the city was carried out under Antigonus (316 - 301 B.C.) and Lysimachus (301 - 281 B.C.).
The name Smyrna means "myrrh," which is a resin obtained from the Commiphora myrrha tree. Myrrh was used chiefly in embalming the dead since it had the property of preserving dead bodies from putrefaction. This type of embalming was used in Egypt and Judea. Myrrh is often remembered as one of the three gifts the Magi gave to Jesus after he was born.
Smyrna was known for its schools of science and medicine. It boasted of, on the slope of Mount Pagus, a theater that could seat up to 20,000 spectators. The city also celebrated Olympian games that were very popular with the local populace.
In 197 B.C. Smyrna severed its relationship with King Eumenes of Pergamos then appealed to Rome for help. Smyrna, because it had never established any ties to the Roman Empire, sought to create a bond by creating a cult of Rome. Smyrna's 'Rome cult' soon spread to other locations and may have led to the worship of the pagan goddess Roma.
On the ground floor of Ephesus' marketplace (Agora) existed twenty-eight businesses, all of which faced toward the north. The market's second floor contained rows of columns between which galleries existed. As such, the Agora was the largest marketplace in the ancient world.
Paul the apostle likely began the Christian church in the city. Polycarp (69 to 155 A.D.), believed to be one of apostle John's students, played a leading role in the Ephesian church in the second century A.D. It is believed Polycarp was martyred in Smyrna.