The vast empire that was to be created by the conquests of Alexander the Great was prophetically foretold by the God of the Bible. The prophet Daniel, who wrote his book during the period of 605 to 530 B.C., predicted Alexander would head a world power around 200 years before it happened! The primary scriptures in Daniel that discuss this world-ruling power are found in chapters 2, 7, 8 and 11.
In chapter 2 of Daniel, Alexander's empire is described as a belly and thighs of bronze (brass) in King Nebuchadnezzar's dream of a great statue of a man (Daniel 2:31-32, 39). In the seventh chapter it is described as looking like a Beast (Leopard) with four heads.
1. In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon, Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed. Then he wrote the dream and told the sum of the matters. 6. After this I saw, and lo, another beast, LIKE A LEOPARD, WHICH HAD FOUR WINGS OF A BIRD ON ITS BACK. The beast also had FOUR HEADS AND DOMINION WAS GIVEN TO IT. (7:1, 6)
In Daniel 8 Alexander the Great's vast empire is symbolized by a male goat with a large horn growing between his eyes (verses 1, 5-7). The Bible then states the following revealing information about the empire which INCLUDES its name!
8. Then the he-goat became very great. And when he was strong, the great horn was broken. And in its place there came up the appearance of four horns toward the four winds of the heavens. 21. AND THE SHAGGY GOAT IS THE KING OF GREECE. (8:8, 21)
Scripture also predicts that Alexander's kingdom would not go to his relatives but would be broken up into four pieces and given to four others.
four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not with its power. (Daniel 8:22, see also Daniel 11:3-4)
At the height of Alexander the Great's empire in 323 B.C. it controlled 2.01 million square miles of land, or 3.49% of world land area. It ruled a region that included the former Persian empire and went as far east as the Indus river.
As was prophecied (Daniel 11:4), after Alexander died his vast empire was not passed to one of his sons nor was the kingdom ruled by others in his family. It was instead divided up between his four chief generals ("four horns toward the four winds of the heavens", "four stood up in its place," etc.).
Egypt was taken by Ptolemy I, after which He declared himself Pharaoh. His ruling dynasty would last until the death of Cleopatra in 30 B.C.
Macedonia (Greece) was taken control of by Antipater just before his death in 319 B.C. Over time Cassander became king in 305 B.C., but his dynasty lasted only until 294 B.C.
- Babylon, Persia and several nearby areas like Mesopotamia were taken over by Seleucus. His ruling dynasty, known as the Seleucids, lasted until 63 B.C.
Antigonus declared himself king of Asia Minor in 306 B.C. and founded the Antigonid dynasty of rule. The dynasty lasted until 168 B.C. when it was conquered by the Roman Republic.