The Order of Melchizedek

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What is the "order of Melchizedek" referenced, by name, SIX times in the book of Hebrews (Hebrews 5:6, 10, 6:20, 7:11, 17 and 21)? What does Scripture reveal about the UNIQUE individual who started it early in Biblical history? Why does this person represent something that is far SUPERIOR to what was offered to ancient Israel under the Old Covenant? How is Jesus' role as mankind's mediator and intercessor in heaven critically linked to Melchizedek?

The only physical appearance of the man, from whom the order of Melchizedek is named, takes place in the lifetime of Abram (Abraham). In his early eighties (see Genesis 12:4), Abram is forced to muster up a small army of his trained servants. He does this to rescue Lot (a close relative) from a four-king alliance that has taken him and many others as prisoners (Genesis 14:1 - 14). Abram is victorious in battle against this confederation and frees Lot. It is after his stunning military victory that he meets the priest.

18. And Melchizedek the King of Salem brought forth bread and wine. And He was the Priest of the Most High God. 19. And He blessed him, and said, 'Blessed be Abram of the Most High God . . . And he (Abram) gave Him tithes of all (Genesis 14:18 - 20, HBFV)

What can we learn about Melchizedek from this brief account? His name, in Hebrew, means someone who is the King of Right or Righteousness (Strong's Concordance #H4442), a fact later confirmed (Hebrews 7:2). He possesses the title "King of Salem" which, given that Salem means "peace" (Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Definitions, #H8004), is synonymous with "King of Peace" (Hebrews 7:2). Salem is also an early name for the city of Jerusalem.

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Additionally, his name and titles tell us that he possessed the authority of both a ruler (King) and a priest. Melchizedek is, without hesitation, accepted as someone who is not only superior to Abram (Hebrews 7:4, 7) but worthy to receive a tithe of war spoils. The New Testament informs us about yet another unique characteristic of this mysterious and unique individual.

This Melchizedek was king of Salem and priest of God Most High . . . (he was) without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of days or end of life . . . (Hebrews 7:1, 3, NIV).

Abram meets Melchizedek
Abram and Melchizedek meet
Dieric the Elder Bouts (1464 - 67)


Why was it needed?

The Apostle Paul quotes a somewhat hidden Old Testament passage to show that the priesthood started by Melchizedek made possible Jesus' role as our heavenly high priest. It is a role that he did not perfectly fulfill until after he was born, suffered, died and was resurrected from the dead (Hebrews 5:7 - 10, 9:11 - 12).

5 So Christ also did not take upon himself the glory of becoming a high priest. But God said to him, "You are my Son; today I have become your Father. 6 And he says in another place (Psalm 110:4), "You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek" (Hebrews 5:5 - 6, NIV).

When God gave his law to ancient Israel, he specified that only those born of the tribe of Levi (Levi was one of Jacob's sons) could serve as his priests (Numbers 8). Of these Levites, only those who were descended from Aaron were eligible to become High Priest (Exodus 29:9, 29 - 30, Leviticus 8:12, 16:32). Jesus, however, came from the tribe of Judah, a tribe which Scripture says nothing concerning the priesthood (Hebrews 7:13 - 14). He was not, based on Old Testament law, eligible to be a priest. How could he then "legally" serve in such a capacity after his resurrection? The answer is the creation of the order of Melchizedek.

Why did the only Biblical appearance of Melchizedek (Genesis 14:18 - 20) occur MANY decades before Levi (Abraham's great-grandson) was born and more than 300 years prior to Israel receiving the law (Exodus 20)? It is because God intended, in advance, that the Old Covenant Levitical priesthood last for only a short time (Hebrews 7:11 - 12, 9 - 10) and be replaced. The existence of the order, prior to the giving of the law, meant that it would not be bound by its rules regarding the priesthood. This made it possible for Jesus to serve, after his resurrection, as High Priest after the manner of Melchizedek.

What makes it superior?

The Apostle Paul delineates some of the profound ways the Melchizedekan order was, and still is, superior to what was instituted under the Old Covenant (Hebrews 7:7). It is a royal or ruling High priesthood (Hebrews 7:1), which is perfect (verse 11), changeless (verse 24) and composed of one individual who always existed (verse 3) and always will (verses 8, 16, 24). Instead of intercession being accomplished periodically within an earthly temple (see Hebrews 9), it is performed constantly next to God's throne (Hebrews 7:25 - 26, 8:1 - 2, 10:11 - 12). The covenant that is mediated is much better (Hebrews 8:6), with better promises, than what was offering under the Old Covenant.

Interesting Facts

Genesis 14 briefly mentions a conflict between Abram (Abraham) and his men versus a confederation of four kings. It is the first Biblical reference to a war among humans being fought.

The Genesis account regarding the order of Melchizedek states he brought bread and wine to Abram (Genesis 14:18). It is one of the first references to wine in God's word. It also, among several other Scriptures, shows that the drinking of alcoholic beverages, such as wine (in moderation, of course), is permitted.

Additional Study Materials
Gems in the High Priest's breastplate
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Learn about the Life of Abraham!

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Primary Sources

Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide
Holy Bible, a Faithful Version


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