Originally named Simon and renamed Peter by Jesus. A married fisherman from Bethsaida who was the third of twelve disciples Jesus called (John 1:40 - 42). He walked on water with Jesus (Matthew 14) and also denied 3 times he knew him (Matthew 26). Was a witness to Jesus' transfiguration (Matthew 17). Raised a widow from the dead (Acts 9). Was rebuked by Apostle Paul for his hypocritical behavior (Galatians 2). Wrote 2 New Testament books. Died a martyr at the hands of Rome around 67 A.D.
Resided in Bethsaida where also Andrew and Peter lived. Was also considered an evangelist. The apostle Paul stayed at Philip's house on his way to Jerusalem (Acts 21:8 - 10). According to Foxe's, labored diligently in Upper Asia and suffered martyrdom at Heliopolis in Phrygia.
Also called Bartholomew.
James (the Greater)
This James, brother of the apostle John, is also called 'James the Greater' to distinguish him from the other disciple named James (who is the son of Alpheus). Was a fisherman in partnership with Peter. Was with disciples Peter and John when Jesus was transfigured (Matthew 17:1). James was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa in 44 A.D., making him the first martyr among the apostles.
Born in Nazareth. Was also known by the name Levi. Occupation was a tax-collector. The gospel he wrote, in 35 A.D., was the very first book written for the New Testament. According to Foxe's, labored spreading the gospel in Parthia and Ethiopia. Suffered martyrdom.
The below five out of twelve apostles were called at roughly the same time.
James (the Less)
This James is also called 'James the Less' to distinguish him from the other disciple named James (who is John's brother). According to Foxe's, at age 94, was beaten and stoned by the Jews.
This Judas was also called Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus. Brother of the disciples James the Less and Simon (the Canaanite).
Also known as Simon the Canaanite or Simon the Zealot. Was brother of the disciples James the Less and Judas (not Iscariot). According to Foxe's, preached in Mauritania, Africa and Britain.
Also called Didymus. After Jesus' resurrection, when the other disciples had seen him alive, Thomas refused to believe Jesus was back from the dead until he literally saw and touched his wounds (Matthew 28:9 - 10, Luke 24:36 - 48). The term "doubting Thomas" comes from Thomas' disbelief in Jesus' literal resurrection. According to Foxe's, preached the gospel in Parthia and India.
Judas, who although a thief, was allowed to carry the group's money bag. Judas betrayed Jesus to the chief priests for thirty pieces of silver. After his betrayal the remorse of his sin leads him to commit suicide. After his death the remaining apostles (disciples) must choose someone to take his place.