The New Testament ministry of John the Baptist, which preceded Jesus' by six months, ran from 26 to 29 A.D. It was his calling to prepare the people for the literal appearing of the anticipated Messiah. John's ministry ended when Herod Antipas, who ruled part of Palestine as one of the sons of Herod of Great, beheaded him. The ministry of Jesus ran for three and one-half years, from the Fall of 26 A.D. to the Spring of 30 A.D. He lived in Capernaum, located on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee, during the entire period of his preaching and spreading the good news of God's kingdom.
Galilee, which the Romans considered the northern part of the land of Palestine, was the focal point of many miracles and events in the life of our Savior. At least five of his twelve disciples were living in the region when He called them to be apostles. Nineteen out of the thirty-two parables Jesus gave he spoke in Galilee. Twenty-five of Jesus' thirty-three great miracles were also in the area. Jesus' very first public miracle was at the wedding in Cana of Galilee, as well as his last one performed on the shore of Galilee's sea after his resurrection. It was from Galilee that Jesus gave his well-known New Testament message known as "the sermon on the mount" (Matthew 5 - 7, Luke 6:20 - 49).
How did the region get its name?
The Hebrew word Pelesheth (Strong's Concordance #H6429) is translated three times in the King James Version Bible as Palestina (Exodus 15:14, Isaiah 14:29, 31) and once as Palestine (Joel 3:4). It originally denoted only the seacoast of the land of Canaan, which was inhabited by the Philistines.
In 68 B.C., Pompey the Great reduced this occupied area to a Roman province. The area officially received the name of Palestine (Palaestina) by the Roman Empire in about 135 A.D. Before this time, the Romans had split this general region into the following four pieces.
Judea, the southern portion of the country
Samaria, the middle province, whose northern boundary ran along the hills to the south of the Plain of Esdraelon (valley of Jezreel)
Galilee, the northern province
Perea (a Greek word that means "opposite country"), an area that lies east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea