After 1380 B.C.
Jebus, the original name of ancient Jerusalem, is populated by the Jebusites (a Canaanite tribe). It is a city built on seven hills. A partial siege carried out by the tribe of Judah against the city (Judges 1:8) takes place a short time after the death of Joshua.
David begins his rule as king after the death of Saul. His reign, however, begins with him ruling over only one Israelite tribe (his own tribe of Judah). He will not make Jerusalem his capital until he is made ruler over all Israel.
David, after ruling over only the tribe of Judah for seven and one-half years, is accepted as king over all of Israel. His first act after becoming the ruler over a united kingdom is to battle the Jebusites over control of Jerusalem. He conquers the city and makes it his capital. From this time forward it is commonly referred to as "the city of David."
Solomon, after the death of his father David, begins his reign as king of Israel.
959 - 958
King Solomon completes the building of Jerusalem's temple dedicated to the great God.
Israel splits into two separate entities, with two separate ruling dynastys, after the death of Solomon. The northern ten tribes of Israel, commonly referred to as simply "Israel" in the Bible, is ruled over by Jeroboam. This kingdom will, eventually, make Samaria its capital city. The southern part of Israel, composed of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi, becomes the Kingdom of Judah. Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, rules over the kingdom from Jerusalem. He will reign for seventeen years.
King Jehoash of Israel sacks Jerusalem, destroys its walls and takes King Amaziah of Judah prisoner.
735 - 732
Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, king of Israel, attack the city (2Chronicles 28). King Ahaz seeks the aid of Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria, to deliver him from these two kings.
Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacks King Hezekiah (2Chronicles 32). He not only mocks the faith of Jerusalem's inhabitants that God can save them, he blasphemes against the Lord himself. God, however, hears the vain threats of the king and has the Angel of the Lord kill 185,000 of his troops as they prepare to enter the city (2Kings 18 - 19).
King Nebuchadnezzar destroys the city and burns its temple. People of Judah are taken captive to Babylon.
The rebuilding of the temple is completed during the reign of Persian King Darius I.
Instead of fighting a bloody battle the city surrenders to Alexander the Great. Alexander spares the city.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes King of the Seleucid Empire. He begins to force Greek culture into Judea and outlaws the Sabbath and circumcision. Antiochus also sacks Jerusalem and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple.
The Maccabean revolt against the Seleucids is started by a Jewish priest named Mattathias.
The Maccabees, led by Mattathias' son Judas Maccabeus, captures Jerusalem and rededicates the temple.
The Roman Republic, led by Pompey, occupies Palestine.
Julius Caesar appoints Antipater I the Idumaean to be procurator of Judea. Antipater is founder of the Herodian dynasty of rule that will last until 92 A.D.
40 - 37
Herod the Great is appointed King of Judea ("King of the Jews") by the Roman Senate. He is given an army and eventually conquers the ancient city of David.
Herod begins work rebuilding the temple.
Jesus is born in Bethlehem. Forty days after his birth, fulfilling the requirement of Leviticus 12, his parents Mary and Joseph take him to Jerusalem to have him dedicated at the temple (Luke 2:22 - 39).
c. 4 B.C.
Herod dies. He is succeeded by his son Herod Antipas.