After 1380 B.C.
Jebus, the original name of Jerusalem, is populated by the Jebusites (a Canaanite tribe). A partial siege of Judah against the city (Judges 1:8) takes place a short time after the death of Joshua.
David battles the Jebusites in Jebus and conquers the city. It becomes the capital of a united Israel and is known as "the city of David."
959 - 958
Solomon completes building the temple of God.
Israel splits into two after the death of Solomon. Ancient Jerusalem becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Judah. Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, is Judah's first king and rules for seventeen years.
The city is attacked by Shishak, the king of Egypt (2Chronicles 12:9; 1Kings 14:25-26). He is the first Egyptian Pharaoh to capture and pillage the city.
The city is attacked by the Philistines, Arabians and Ethiopians (2Chronicles 21:16). The royal palace is looted.
King Jehoash of Israel sacks the city, destroys its walls and takes King Amaziah of Judah prisoner.
735 - 732
Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, king of Israel, attack the city (2Chronicles 28). King Ahaz seeks the aid of Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria, to deliver him from Rezin and Pekah.
Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacks King Hezekiah (2Chronicles 32). Sennacherib threatens to destroy the city, however, God has the Angel of the Lord kill 185,000 troops as they prepare to enter it (2Kings 18-19).
The city falls to King Nebuchadnezzar. He takes Judah's king as prisoner to Babylon and sets up Zedekiah as King.
King Nebuchadnezzar destroys the city and burns its temple. People of Judah are taken captive to Babylon.
The rebuilding of the temple is completed during the reign of Persian King Darius I.
500s - 400s
Ezra, temple priests and Levites known as The Great Assembly complete the canonization of the Old Testament part of the Bible.
Instead of fighting a bloody battle the city surrenders to Alexander the Great. Alexander spares the city.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes King of the Seleucid Empire. He begins to force Greek culture into Judea and outlaws the Sabbath and circumcision. Antiochus also sacks Jerusalem and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple.
The Maccabean revolt against the Seleucids is started by a Jewish priest named Mattathias.
The Maccabees, led by Mattathias' son Judas Maccabeus, captures Jerusalem and rededicates the temple.
The Roman Republic, led by Pompey, occupies Palestine.
Julius Caesar appoints Antipater I the Idumaean to be procurator of Judea. Antipater is founder of the Herodian dynasty of rule that will last until 92 A.D.
40 - 37
Herod the Great is appointed King of Judea ("King of the Jews") by the Roman Senate. He is given an army and eventually conquers the ancient city of David.
Herod begins work rebuilding the temple.
Jesus is born.
Herod dies. He is succeeded by his son Herod Antipas.