c. 72 B.C.
Herod the Great is born to Antipater I the Idumaean (which means 'from the land of Edom'), who is the founder of the Herodian dynasty of rule.
Roman troops, led by Pompey, occupy Palestine in the name of the Roman Republic. The empire conquers Jerusalem and she falls.
A contention between Pompey and Julius Caesar over the leadership of the Roman state leads to what is known as the Great Roman Civil War.
Pompey, who fled to Egypt after his defeat by Caesar in the Battle of Pharsalus, is murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy XIII.
Julius Caesar appoints Antipater I the Idumaean to be procurator of Judea in recognition of the aid he gave him during Rome's civil war. Antipater is also given the right to collect taxes. He makes his son governor of Galilee.
Julius Caesar is assassinated on March 15th (commonly known as the Ides of March).
Antipater I is murdered by poison.
Mark (Marc) Antony elevates Herod the Great to the rank of tetrarch of Jerusalem and Galilee.
Herod is appointed, in Rome, as King of Judea ("King of the Jews") by the Roman Senate.
Although appointed King of Judea in 40 B.C., it takes another three years before Herod and the army travel to Palestine and conquer Jerusalem. He eventually becomes sole ruler of Judea.
Aristobulus IV (31 to 7 B.C.), son of Herod and his second wife Mariamne, is born.
End of the Roman Republic. Augustus Caesar becomes Roman Emperor.
Herod Archelaus, son of Herod the Great and Malthace, is born.
before 20 B.C.
Herod Antipas, another son of Herod the Great and Malthace, is born.
Herod, desirous of gaining the favor of the Jews, begins work to restore and expand Jerusalem's temple, which had laid unfinished for about five hundred years.
Agrippa I (known as Herod Agrippa in the New Testament), son of Aristobulus IV and a grandson of Herod of Great, is born.
c. 4 B.C.
Herod the Great dies in Jericho and is buried in Herodium, Judea. After his death Roman Emperor Augustus divides up his kingdom among some of his sons.
Herod Archelaus, one of Herod's sons through wife Malthace, is made Ethnarch (a title of rule that is less than a king) of Samaria, Idumea (Edom) and a large part of Palestine. He rules from 4 B.C. to 6 A.D. when the Judea province is formed and put under direct Roman rule. Archelaus lives until c. 18 A.D.
Herod Antipas, another one of Herod's sons through wife Malthace, is made tetrarch of Galilee and Perea. He rules from 4 B.C. to 39 A.D. It was he who, as the New Testament records, not only arrested and beheaded John the Baptist but also played a part in the crucifixion of Jesus.
Philip the Tetrarch (often referred to as Herod Philip II) is a son of Herod through Cleopatra of Jerusalem. Rome gives him the northeast part of his father's kingdom, which includes Batanea, Auranitis and Trachonitis. He rules from 4 B.C. to 34 A.D.
27 / 28 A.D.
Agrippa II, son of Agrippa I and great-grandson to Herod the Great, is born.
After Antipas' death in Gaul, Agrippa I is made ruler over Galilee and Perea as Roman tetrarch.
Agrippa I beheads the apostle James and has Peter arrested. Soon after God sends the angel of the Lord to kill him. He dies and is eaten by worms (Acts 12).
Herod of Chalcis, brother of Agrippa I and a grandson of Herod the Great, dies. He was tetrarch of Chalcis (a kingdom north of Judea) for an unknown period of time. In his place Herod Agrippa II is made tetrarch of Chalcis. Although forced to give up Chalcis in 53 A.D. he is made king of Batanea, Trachonitis and other areas by Emperor Claudius.
Work on Jerusalem's second temple is finally completed.
Roman legions, under the command of military commander Titus (later Emperor Titus), destroy Jerusalem and set fire to its temple.
c. 92 A.D.
Herod Agrippa II, a great-grandson of Herod the Great, dies. He is the last of the Herodian dynasty to rule.