ANSWER: In ancient Israel, the rose of Sharon grew in a plain that was also called Lasharon (Joshua 12:18). It was an expanse of land starting on the Mediterranean Sea coast that stretched east 10 miles (16 km). Its northern boundary was around modern Haifa, where it ran south to near Tel Aviv (about 51 miles or 82 km).
Solomon used Sharon's rose to describe the pleasing appearance of a woman he was courting. The plain where it was found was known for its beauty and fertility (1Chronicles 27:29, Isaiah 33:9). The king directly references this rose in the Biblical book named after him.
"I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys. Like a lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters . . . Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away . . . let me see your face, let me hear your voice; For your voice is sweet, and your face is lovely." (Song of Solomon, 2:1 - 2, 10, 14, NKJV).
No one today knows exactly what this flower looked like at the time ancient Israel was a united kingdom. The Hebrew word translated as "rose" in Song of Solomon 2:1 (chabatstseleth) only tells us it was a meadow saffron but does not give us its color. Many varieties of meadow saffrons are still common in Palestine.
Although some believe the rose of Sharon symbolizes Jesus as the church's heavenly bridegroom, there is no direct Biblical connection to this symbolism.
The only balm referenced, by name, in the Bible is the balm of Gilead (Jeremiah 8:22, 46:11). This balm, which was a valuable trading commodity, was used as a healing ointment. There is no known relationship, however, between this balm and the famous rose. That said, in modern times, portions of certain roses are sometimes used for medicinal treatments.