The New Testament ministry of John the Baptist, which preceded Jesus' by six months, ran from 26 to 29 A.D. It was his calling to prepare the people for the literal appearing of the anticipated Messiah. John's ministry ended when Herod Antipas, who ruled part of Israel as one of the sons of Herod of Great, beheaded him.
For Herod had arrested John, bound him and put him in prison, for the sake of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip; Because John had said to him, "It is not lawful for you to have her as your wife."
Now when they were celebrating Herod's birthday, the daughter of Herodias danced before them; and it pleased Herod. Therefore, he promised with an oath to give her whatever she might ask. Then, being urged by her mother, she said, "Give me, here on a platter, the head of John the Baptist." (Matthew 14:3 - 4, 6 - 8, HBFV)
The ministry of Jesus, which stayed primary in ancient Israel, ran for three and one-half years, from the Fall of 26 A.D. (a jubilee year) to the Spring of 30 A.D. He lived in Capernaum, located on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee, during the entire period of his preaching and spreading the good news of God's kingdom.
Galilee, which the Romans considered the northern part of the land of Israel, was the focal point of many miracles and events in the life of our Savior. At least five of his twelve disciples were living in the region when He called them to be apostles. Nineteen out of the thirty-two parables Jesus gave he spoke in Galilee. Twenty-five of Jesus' thirty-three great miracles were also in the area.
Jesus' very first public miracle was at a wedding in Cana of Galilee, as well as his last one performed on the shore of Galilee's sea after his resurrection. It was from Galilee that Jesus gave his well-known New Testament message known as "the sermon on the mount" (Matthew 5 - 7, Luke 6:20 - 49).
How did Palestine get its name?
The name "Israel" occurs fifty-one times in the gospels and the book of Acts. The Hebrew word Pelesheth (Strong's Concordance #H6429) is translated three times in the King James Version Bible as "Palestina" (Exodus 15:14, Isaiah 14:29, 31) and once as Palestine (Joel 3:4). It originally denoted only the seacoast of the land of Canaan, which was inhabited by the Philistines.
In 68 B.C., Pompey the Great reduced this occupied area of the Middle East into a Roman province. The area officially became referenced not as Israel but as Palestine (Palaestina) by the Roman Empire in about 135 A.D. The Romans, before this time, had split this general region into the following four pieces.
Judea, which was part of the southern portion of ancient Israel.
Galilee, one of the northern areas of ancient Israel.
Perea (a Greek word that means "opposite country"), an area that lies east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. Most of the area was initially given, by God, to Israel's tribe of Gad.