People in the Old Testament

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Moses' brother who was made his spokesman by God. Went with Moses to Pharaoh demanding children of Israel's release from slavery. Made Israel's first High Priest. Was not allowed to enter the promised land.

Adam and Eve's second son. Murdered by jealous older brother Cain. Had faith in God (Hebrews 11) and called righteous by Jesus (Matthew 23:35).

Originally named Abram. Left home in Ur to go to promised land. Faith tested when asked to sacrifice son Isaac. Promised by God he would be father of many nations and kings. Called father of the faithful (Romans 4:16).

King David's son who attempted to take over the throne. While fleeing after losing a battle with David's army he is caught in a tree and killed by Joab.

Map of Division of Promised Land
How many Israelites left Egypt?
Old Testament Timeline

Name means 'red' or 'red earth.' He is the first created human. Sinned when he ate fruit of tree of good and evil (Genesis 3). Was cast out of Eden along with Eve. Lived 930 years.

Worst king of Israel. Married to Jezebel. Expanded Israel's worship of pagan gods. Elijah the prophet confronted him for his evil.

Jonah the Prophet
Jonah the Prophet
Lorenzetto, 1519 - 20

One of the Minor Prophets. Contemporaries were Isaiah and Hosea. Prophesied against Israel's oppression of poor, sexual immorality, luxury and corruption.

Prophet asked by Balak, the king of the Moabites, to curse Israel as they camped in the wilderness. God warned Balaam not to curse Israel by miraculously having a horse talk and the Angel of the Lord appear ready to kill him (Numbers 22 - 23). Taught Balak how to corrupt the Israelites and bring judgment down upon themselves (Numbers 31).

Was from the tribe of Judah. Secretary for the prophet Jeremiah who wrote all his prophecies then read them to the people.

Wife of Uriah the Hittite. King David committed adultery with her then set up Uriah to be killed in battle. Child born out of adultery dies. Marries David and become mother of Solomon and Nathan.

Last king of Babylonian empire. Saw miraculous "handwriting on wall" which Daniel revealed was God's judgment on him and Babylon - and was killed that night. Darius the Mede, with consent of Persia's Cyrus the Great, takes Babylon.

Born to Jacob and Rachel. Was Jacob's youngest of 12 sons.

Was Rachel's handmaid given to her by her father Laban. Rachel, who was barren, gave Bilhah to Jacob so that she could have children through her (Genesis 30). Gave birth to two sons of Jacob: Dan and Naphtali.

Married Ruth (who authored the Bible book of Ruth) and was the great-grandfather of King David.

Adam and Eve's first child who was a tiller of the ground. Became jealous of younger brother Abel and murdered him. Part of his punishment from God was to live as a fugitive.

Cyrus the Great
Considered first true king of the Persian empire. Conquered the Median Empire in 549 B.C. and the Babylonian empire in 539 B.C. Issued decree to allow Jews to return to Jerusalem.

A descendent of a noble Jewish family who was taken captive by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon when he conquered Judah. Was highly likely a eunuch. Became a chief advisor to the King and eventually was made third ruler of kingdom (Daniel 5).

God gave Daniel the ability to interpret dreams. Survived being thrown in lion's den (Daniel 6). Gave prophecies that foretold of future world empires leading up to the return of Christ.

Darius I the Great
Persian king who authorized the completion of rebuilding Jerusalem's Temple. Work on the temple was completed in 516 B.C.

Youngest son of Jesse. Greatest king of Israel who ruled 40 years. As a young man killed Goliath the giant. Won military battles that expanded kingdom. Wrote most of the book of Psalms. Conquered Jerusalem, made it his capital and brought to it the Ark of the Covenant. Committed adultery with Bathsheba. Son Solomon followed him as king.

A prophetess who, with the help of Barak, freed Israel from the oppression brought by the King of Canaan. Deborah and Barak serve as Israel's Judges for 40 years (Judges 4 - 5).

Philistine harlot who was bribed to entice Samson to reveal secret of his strength. Had Samson's hair cut while he slept, rendering him weak.

High Priest who judged Israel 40 years after death of Samson. Taught a very young Samuel who eventually became one a prophet.

Prophet who warned and punished King Ahab for his sins. Raised widow's son from the dead. Had confrontation with Israel's false prophets which ended in their death. After fleeing death threats from Jezebel is told to anoint 2 kings and make Elisha his successor. Chariot of fire miraculously takes him to a location away from Elisha.

Elijah's successor as prophet of Israel. Received 'a double portion' of Elijah's spirit after seeing him leave by chariot of fire. Brought back to life child who died in farming accident.

There are at least two "Enochs" in Scripture. The first is the eldest son of Cain (Genesis 4:17).

The second Enoch is the son of Jared (Genesis 5:18) and father of Methuselah (verse 21), the oldest person who ever lived (969 years). This second Enoch was 365 years old when God "translated" him, meaning moved him miraculously to another place on earth (and not to heaven as many teach) to likely avoid being killed.

Also called Edom. Son of Isaac and older twin brother of Jacob. Sold his birthright for bowl of lentil soup. Founder of the Edomites.

Jewish wife of Persian king. Told by Mordecai of plot to destroy all the Jews in the kingdom. Foils plot by Haman to kill Mordecai and all the Jews. Jewish festival of Purim celebrates events in Book of Esther and the delivery of the Jews through the Queen.

First woman created. Made from one of Adam's ribs (Genesis 2:21 - 22). Her name means "life." Sinned by eating from tree of good and evil (Genesis 3) and was thrown out of Eden with Adam. Gave birth to Cain, Abel, Seth and many other children.

One of the Bible's major prophets. Taken into Babylonian captivity by King Nebuchadnezzar. Known for having visions of 'wheel in the middle of a wheel' (Ezekiel 1, 10) and valley of dry bones (Ezekiel 37).

An Aaronic priest who led the effort, along with the Great Synagogue, to canonize the Old Testament. Produced Old Testament containing 22 manuscripts divided into three main divisions: The Law, The Prophets, and The Writings.

Called by God to deliver Israel from Midianite and Amalekite oppression. Took 300 men and surrounded the camp of Israel's enemies (Judges 7). After all the men blew trumpets and broke pitchers with torches in them the enemy became confused and fought amongst themselves. Gideon served 40 years as Israel's judge.

One of five giant Philistine brothers who was at least 9 feet 3 inches tall (2.82 meters). In battle he wore a protective coat that weighed at least 78 U.S. pounds (35.4 kilograms) and threw a spear that was 26 feet (7.9 meters) long. Considered the Philistine's greatest fighter when a very young David fought and killed him.

One of the minor prophets. Gave prophecies concerning destruction of Chaldeans and against greed, graft, idolatry and aggression.

An Egyptian taken as Abraham's handmaid when Sarah, his wife, thought her age prohibited having children. On Sarah's approval Abraham had a child named Ishmael through Hagar. She lived with the couple until Ishmael was about 14 years old.

One of the minor prophets. Gave prophecies concerning the restoration of Jerusalem's temple and the neglect of those rebuilding it.

The youngest of Noah's three children. Survived the great flood in the ark. His sons were Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan (from which the land of Canaan gets its name).

Barren woman who prayed to God for a child and promised to dedicate him to His service. She miraculously gave birth to Samuel, one of the most important prophets in the Old Testament.

Also called Eber. Great-grandson of Shem. Lived from 2276 - 1812 B.C. It is believed that from his name the term 'Hebrews,' used to denote those claiming descent from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, is derived.

King of Tyre who assisted King David in building his house. Helps King Solomon build temple by sending wood, gold, other materials.

One of the minor prophets who warned Israel about their adultery, idolatry and drunkenness.

Last King of Israel from 732 - 723 B.C. Samaria falls to Assyrian King Shalmaneser V in 723 B.C. and the Ten Tribes of Israel (also known as the Northern Kingdom) are taken captive to Assyria.

Only child of Abraham and Sarah. Miraculously born after Sarah healed of being barren. The Eternal tested Abraham's faith by asking he sacrifice Isaac (Genesis 22). Wife was Rebekah, who bore him Esau and Jacob. Lived longer (180) than his father Abraham (175) or son Jacob (147).

One of the Bible's major prophets. Served during reigns of kings Azariah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah. Foretold the coming and suffering of Jesus (Isaiah 52:13 - 53:12). Jesus began his ministry by quoting from Isaiah 61 (Luke 4:16 - 21).

Abraham's eldest son by Hagar, Sarah's maidservant. Grew up to be a "wild man" (Genesis 16:12). Was cast into the wilderness with his mother when he mocked Isaac. God made him into a great nation and gave him twelve sons who were princes of their tribes (Genesis 17:20).

Son of Isaac and twin-brother to Esau. Buys Esau's birthright blessing for bowl of stew (Genesis 25:29 - 34). Steals father's blessing by pretending to be Esau. Flees Esau to Laban, where he must work 14 years to marry Rachel. Wrestles with man who is actually Jesus and has name changed to Israel (Genesis 32:22 - 32).

Jacob's sons, which represent the tribes of Israel, are Asher, Benjamin, Dan, Gad, Isaachar, Judah, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, Zebulon. Levi, though a son, is usually not listed as a tribe due to being made priests of the Eternal. Although Joseph was also a son of Jacob his two sons Ephraim and Manasseh, whom Jacob gave the birthright blessing (Genesis 48), are listed as tribes instead of him.

The middle oldest of Noah's three children. Survived the great flood in the ark. His sons were Gomer, Magog, Javan, Tubal and others.

King of Judah who ruled for only 3 months in 598 - 597 B.C. After Jerusalem falls at the hands of King Nebuchadnezzar he is captured and taken as prisoner to Babylon.

Destined to be a major prophet before he was born (Jeremiah 1:4 - 5). Foretells and laments the desolation of Jerusalem and Judah. Imprisoned by Judah's King Zedekiah but released by Nebuchadnezzar. Foretold suffering of Jesus.

Reigned over a divided Israel (composed of only 10 tribes), whose capital was originally Shechem, from 930 - 909 B.C. Set up a golden calve god in Dan and Bethel to keep people from worshipping in Jerusalem (1Kings 12). Set precedence of idolatry and leading Israel to sin that the Lord would reference many times (1Kings 16:2, 19, 31, etc.)

Grandson of Boaz and Ruth. Was father of King David, his youngest of 8 children.

Wife of King Ahab who led him to do great evil. Threaten Elijah the prophet with death.

Son of David's sister and commander of David's army. Had several military successes. Played a part in David's plot to have Uriah, Bathsheba's husband, killed in battle to cover up his adultery with her (2Samuel 11).

Joab murdered Abner in revenge for death of brothers (2Samuel 3). Did not support Solomon becoming the next king. Solomon had Joab killed per David's request (1Kings 2).

Wrote first book of the Bible. Was wealthy and considered righteous when Satan challenged God regarding the sincerity of his obedience (Job 1). The devil is allowed to take away Job's possessions and kill his children. After a period of trial and testing (made worse by his 'friends') the Eternal personally confronts Job and causes him to repent.

One of the minor prophets whose prophecies parallel what is in book of Revelation. Gave prophecies regarding future judgment and punishment of mankind.

A prophet sent to warn Nineveh of their impending judgment for their sins. Jonah initially refuses to warn the city. God then has a great fish swallow him.

Jonah cries out for help and after 3 days and nights (a type of Jesus' death) the fish vomits Jonah on a beach near Nineveh. He then warns the city, which heeds his words, repents, and is spared destruction.

Son of King Saul. Was very close friend of King David. Died in battle.

Favorite son of Jacob. Mother is Rachel. Received coat of many colors from Jacob (Genesis 37). Sold as slave by his brothers. Was prisoner in Egypt. Interprets dreams of Pharaoh and made overseer of Egypt (Genesis 41). Has two sons: Manasseh and Ephraim. Saves entire family by having them move to Egypt to avoid famine. Joseph is also name of Mary's (Jesus' mother) husband.

Led children of Israel into promised land after death of Moses. Led battles to conquer land given by God. Divided land among the tribes. Served 18 years as Israel's first judge.

One of the best Kings of Judah. Reigned 31 years. Helped restore the true worship of the Lord to Judah. Fatally wounded in battle by random arrow.

Jacob's fourth son by Leah. Interceded to stop other brothers from killing Joseph (Genesis 37). Had incest with daughter-in-law (Genesis 38). Tribe of Judah led conquest of promised land (Judges 1).

Referred to in the Bible as Abraham's concubine. She likely married him after the death of Sarah. Keturah bore Abraham six children: Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak and Shuah.

Brother of Abraham whose sister was the wife of Isaac. Did not keep agreement with Jacob who promised to work for him 7 years in order to marry Rachel (Genesis 29).

Was the eldest daughter of Laban. Although Jacob wanted to marry Rachel, Laban deceived him into taking Leah as his first wife (Genesis 29). Leah bore Jacob six boys and a girl: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Isaachar, Zebulun and Dinah.

Jacob's third son by Leah. As a tribe received no land inheritance in Canaan but did get cities throughout Israel. They are made the priestly tribe of Israel and live by tithes paid by other Israelite tribes.

His uncle was Abraham. Led out of Sodom and Gomorrah by angels before its destruction. Saw wife turned into pillar of salt for her disobedience in watching the cities being destroyed (Genesis 19).

After the two sinful cities are destroyed Lot's two daughters, thinking all humans got killed, get him drunk and get pregnant by him. The daughters give birth to founders of the Moabite and Ammonite peoples.

The last of the minor prophets to write (c. 400 B.C.). Gave prophecies regarding being prepared for God's Messenger, Jesus Christ. Spoke against divorce, adultery, priestly neglect of duties and robbing the Eternal by not tithing.

Name of one of Joseph's son born in Egypt. Also name of one of Judah's kings who ruled longer (55 years) than any King of Israel or Judah. Consider one of the worst kings, he encouraged the worship of many false gods. He also used witchcraft, worked with evil spirits, and even sacrificed his own son by fire to Moloch (2Kings 21).

Melchizedek (Melchizedec)
Abraham tithed to Melchizedek. His means "king of righteousness," and "king of peace" (Hebrews 7). Paul states he didn't have a father or mother, was never born, never died, and is a priest forever. Jesus is a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek (Hebrews 5).

Lived from 3297 to 2328 B.C., a total of 969 years, which makes him the oldest human in history. Methusaleh died the same year as Noah's flood.

One of the minor prophets. Gave prophecies concerning lack of justice and oppression in the world.

One of Saul's daughters who became the first wife of King David. She was childless through David.

Prophetess who is sister of Moses and Aaron. Led song of triumphant after Red Sea closed and Egyptian army killed (Exodus 15). Jealousy of Moses led to being stricken with leprosy, which Moses prayed to God to heal (Numbers 12).

Lot's son, born from incestuous relationship with Lot's older daughter.

Uncle of Queen Esther who helped save the Jewish people in captivity from total destruction.

A Levite who, when born in 1525 B.C., was hid in a small basket to avoid being killed. Was found and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter (Exodus 2). Moses is educated and learns how to govern in the court of Pharaoh. At the age of forty he sees an Egyptian beating up on a Hebrew and kills the man. His act is discovered and he flees to Midian.

Moses joins himself to a priest of Midian named Jethro. He soon marries his daughter Zipporah and spends forty years as a herdsman in the desert of Horeb.

Moses sees a miraculous vision of a burning bush and receives his calling to free the Israelites from Egyptian bondage. With his brother Aaron (who acted as spokesman) he travels back to Egypt and demands the children of Israel be set free. After a series of ten plagues, brought on due to the hardness of Pharaoh's heart, the Israelites leave Egypt in 1445 B.C.

Moses receives the Ten Commandments directly from God (Exodus 19 - 20). Because of the Israelites lack of faith, Moses and the entire nation wander the wilderness for forty years. During his wandering Moses writes the first five books of the Bible. He dies in 1405 B.C at the age of 120 years.

One of the minor prophets. Gave prophecies concerning the judgment of Nineveh and offered comforting words to Israel.

Mother-in-law of Ruth who lost husband and both her sons. Ruth, who was also a widow, accompanies her to Bethlehem.

Prophet during the reigns of David and Solomon. Reproved David for his adultery with Bathsheba (2Samuel 12) and educated Solomon in his youth. Nathan is also the name of one of David's sons through Bathsheba who is in the genealogy of Jesus' mother Mary (Luke 3:31).

Greatest of all Babylonian Kings. Extends power of Babylon over the known world. Conquered Jerusalem in 597 B.C. and took Judah's king, Ezekiel, Daniel and others captive. In 586 B.C. he destroys Jerusalem and completely burns its temple.

Prophet who, as captive of the Persian empire, was given permission to return to Judah and rebuild Jerusalem (Nehemiah 1-2). Became Governor of Judah. Helped Ezra canonize the Old Testament.

Grandson of Ham. His name means 'rebellion.' Bible states he was "a mighty hunter before (meaning against or in opposition to) the Lord." (Genesis 10:9). He began the city of Babel (leading to the kingdom of Babylon) and built the city of Nineveh (in the land of Assyria).

Commanded to build ark to save animals and his immediately family from worldwide flood. Was 600 years old when flood occurred (Genesis 7:6). After flood a rainbow was given as sign another flood would not occur (Genesis 9). Had three sons: Shem, Ham and Japheth. Lived 950 years total.

One of the minor prophets. Gave prophecies concerning the Day of the Lord, Edom's destruction and Israel's restoration.

Was the youngest daughter of Laban and Jacob's favorite wife. Jacob agreed to work seven years for Laban in order to marry her but was deceived into first marrying Rachel's older sister Leah instead.

Rachel, after being healed of being barren, gave birth to Joseph. She later died giving birth to Benjamin. Rachel is the first woman recorded in the Bible as dying in childbirth.

Harlot who received and assisted spies sent by Joshua to spy out Jericho (Joshua 2). Mentioned in the lineage of Jesus (Matthew 1:5).

Wife of Isaac who was healed of being barren after her and her husband prayed to God. Gave birth to twins Esau and Jacob.

King Solomon's son whose unwillingness to lighten the heavy tax burden imposed by his father (1Kings 12) helped Israel split into two distinct kingdoms. Ruled over the newly-separated Kingdom of Judah (tribes of Judah, Benjamin and priestly tribe of Levi) from 930 - 917 B.C.

Firstborn of Jacob through Leah. Because he committed adultery with Jacob's wife Bilhah Jacob cursed him. He was deprived of his birthright, which Jacob gave to the sons of Joseph.

Non-Israelite woman who, after becoming a widow, went to Bethlehem with mother-in-law Naomi. Meet Boaz, her future husband, while gleaning from his field (Ruth 2). Became Great-grandmother of King David (Ruth 4).

Prophet who was miraculously born when his mother was healed of barrenness. Dedicated to serving the Lord before birth (1Samuel 1). Anointed both Saul and David as Kings. Served 32 years as the last sole Judge of Israel.

Helped free Israel of Philistine oppression. Possessed miraculous strength symbolized by his hair. Revealed to Delilah the secret of his strength. Gave his life to overcoming Philistines. Served as Israel's judge for 20 years.

Wife of Abraham whose initial name (Sarai) was changed by God (Genesis 17). Was healed of being barren and gave birth to Isaac when she was 91 years old and Abraham was 100. She is the only woman in the Bible where her age at death (127) is recorded.

Satan the devil
An angel whose original name was Lucifer, which meant "light bringer." He and other angels willfully disobeyed and rebelled against God and in the process became demons (Revelation 12). Lucifer's name was changed to Satan, which means "the adversary."

Lucifer corrupted himself through pride and vanity and sought to take control of all creation by force (Ezekiel 28, Isaiah 14). Satan and his demons were cast to the earth "like lightning" (Luke 10:18). Satan will ultimately be put to death for his rebellion.

Of the tribe of Benjamin. Anointed by Samuel as Israel's first human king. Reigned from 1050 - 1010 B.C. Took a young King David into his service but out of jealousy grew to hate him then try to kill him. Lost chance to have descendants rule Israel due to disobeying the Eternal (1Samuel 11).

Saul consulted a witch to try contacting a dead Samuel (1Samuel 28). Died in battle with son Jonathan. Saul is also name of apostle Paul before he was converted (Acts 13:9).

Most famous of Assyrian kings. Burned Babylon. Defeated by an angel before entering Jerusalem (Isaiah 37:33 - 38).

Adam and Eve's third son.

Shalmaneser V
Assyrian king who conquered Samaria, Israel's (Northern 10 Tribes of Israel) capital, in 723 B.C. Took Israelites captive and transported them to Assyria.

Eldest son of Noah who survived the flood in the ark. Lived 600 years. Is in lineage of Jesus.

One of King David's sons through Bathsheba. After becoming king he asked the Eternal to give him "an understanding heart" with which to rule. He was given not only wisdom but riches and honor (1Kings 3:10 - 13).

Solomon built Jerusalem's first temple. His 700 wives and 300 concubines turned his heart, when he was old, away from serving the Creator (1Kings 11). Wrote Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, and most of the book of Proverbs.

One of the minor prophets. Foretold coming of God's kingdom preceded by building of temple.

One of the minor prophets. Gave prophecies concerning God's indignation, Israel's repentance and salvation.

Leads emancipated Jews in Babylon to Jerusalem. Was Prince and Governor of Judah. Directs the rebuilding of Jerusalem's altar and temple (Ezra 1, 3).

Was the handmaid of Leah. When Leah thought she could have no more children she gave her to Jacob (Genesis 30). Zilpah gave birth to two sons of Jacob: Gad and Asher.

Daughter of a Midianite priest who was Moses' wife. Was angry at Moses for having to circumcise their son (Exodus 4:24 - 26). Moses then sends Zipporah and their two sons back to her father. They later reunite (Exodus 18:2 - 6).

Additional Study Materials
Abraham's Journey to Canaan Map
Where was Israel taken captive?
Who were the toughest Israelite women?
Kings of Israel and Judah

Old Testament People

Holy Bible, a Faithful Version

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