Gaius to Joses
Important New Testament People

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This page lists information on important New Testament people who played a role in the development and expansion of the first century church. Individuals discussed on this page include Gaius, Gamaliel, Herod Agrippa I, Herod Antipas, Herod the Great and Herodias, as well as the apostles James the Greater, James the Less, John and others.

Acts 19:29, 20:4, 1Corinthians 1:14, Romans 16:23, 3John 1:1

The Apostle John addresses his third and final epistle to Gaius, a man who was greatly beloved by him (3John 1:5 - 6). John states he was someone who not only walked in the truth (verses 3 - 4) but also faithfully served both fellow believers and strangers (verse 5 - 6). Nothing more is known about him.

For two other men named Gaius in the New Testament please see their listing under those connected to the Apostle Paul.

Acts 18:12, 14, 17

See people connected to Paul listing.

Acts 5:34, 22:3

Gamaliel was a well-known first century Rabbi who taught Paul when he was young. When the twelve apostles were brought before the Sanhedrin, the year after Jesus' resurrection, he wisely counseled them to "leave them alone." He gave this advice lest the Jewish religious leaders found themselves fighting against God!

Romans 16:14

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Romans 16:14

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2Timothy 1:15

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Herod II (Herod Philip I)
Mark 6:17

Herod II is referenced as Philip in some translations. He is also sometimes referenced by modern authors as Herod Philip I. Herod II is the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne II. His link to the Bible, however, is through his wife Herodias.

After Herod II and Herodias married they produced a daughter named Salome. Herodias and Herod Antipas then decided to divorce their mates and marry each other. Herod Antipas' decision to marry the wife of Herod II (who was his half-brother) was condemned by John the Baptist as a sin (Matthew 14:1 - 12, Mark 6:14 - 28).

Herod Agrippa I
Acts 12:1 - 5, 19 - 23

Herod Agrippa I was the son of Aristobulus IV (Herod the Great's son) and a woman named Berenice. He was made Roman Tetrarch over Galilee and Perea in 39 A.D. and in 41 was declared king of Judea.

The New Testament records that Herod, to please the Jews, had James, the brother of the Apostle John, murdered. This made James the first of the twelve apostles to die as a martyr. Herod also threw Peter in prison. Agrippa finally met his demise, in 44, after God sent a death angel to kill him after a speech he gave did not give the Eternal the glory he deserved.

Herod Agrippa II
Acts 25:13, 22 - 26, 26:1 - 2, 7, 19, 27 - 32

Herod Agrippa II was the son of Herod Agrippa I. While visiting Caesarea in late 60 A.D. he hears Apostle Paul's defense of himself after he had languished two years in the city's prison.

Herod Antipas
Matthew 14:3 - 12
Mark 6:17 - 29
Luke 3:1, 9:7 - 9, 13:31 - 32, 23:6 - 12
Acts 4:27

Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace. After the death of his father, he was made tetrarch of Galilee and Perea around 4 B.C.

After being condemned for unlawfully marrying Herodias, the wife of his half-brother Herod II (some modern authors refer to him as Herod Philip I), Antipas arrests John the Baptist and puts him in prison. He then, because of a promise made to Salome (Herodias' daughter through Herod II) on his birthday, has John beheaded. He later, in 30 A.D., would mock Jesus before his crucifixion.

Herod Archelaus
Matthew 2:22

Herod Archelaus was born in 23 B.C. He was the son of Herod the Great and a woman named Malthace the Samaritan. Archelaus would ultimately become one of Herod's eight known sons he produced through various women.

Archelaus, through Rome, was given the title of Ethnarch (not King) over Judea, Samaria, and Idumea after the death of Herod of Great in 4 B.C. Archelaus was a bad and unstable ruler. His troops, shortly after the death of his father, slaughtered 3,000 men during the Feast of Unleavened Bread in Jerusalem. It was his brutal behavior that caused Mary and Joseph to abandon their plan to live in Bethlehem and instead live in Nazareth (Matthew 2:20 - 23). The Roman Empire removed him from his position of power in 6 A.D. and banished him to Gaul.

Herod Philip II (Philip the Tetrarch)
Luke 3:1

Philip the tetrarch is sometimes referenced as Herod Philip II by modern writers. He was the son of Herod the Great and his fifth wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was born around 26 B.C.

Around 4 B.C., after the death of his father, Rome gave Philip the northeastern part of his dad's kingdom to rule. This region included Batanea, Auranitis and Trachonitis (territory north and east of the Sea of Galilee). He ruled this area until his death in 34 A.D.

Herod the Great
Matthew 2

Herod the Great was the son of Antipater, the person who started the Herodian dynasty of rule in Palestine. Herod was made tetrarch of Jerusalem and Galilee in 41 B.C. by Mark Antony. One year later, in 40 B.C., the Roman Senate gave him the title of King of Judea ("King of the Jews").

In 37 B.C., after three years battling to gain control of the region, Herod becomes sole ruler of Judea. In 20 B.C., he begins the massive repairs and restoration of Jerusalem's neglected temple. Known for his cruelty, Herod orders the slaughter of male babies, two years old and younger, around Bethlehem in an attempt to kill baby Jesus.

Herod would ultimately marry five women (Doris, Mariamne I, Mariamne II, Malthace and Cleopatra of Jerusalem) and produce at least nine known children. His reign of cruelty ends when he dies around 4 B.C.

Matthew 14:3, 6, Mark 6:17, 19, 22
Luke 3:19

Herodias was Herod the Great's granddaughter, as her parents were Aristobulus IV (son of Herod the Great and his second wife Mariamne I) and Berenice.

She was first married to Herod Philip I (also known as Herod II) who was the son of Herod the Great through his third wife Marianme II (she was the daughter of the High Priest Simon, son of Beothus). They produced one daughter named Salome (Antiquities of the Jews, Book 18, Chapter 5, Section 4).

Herod Antipas, upon seeing his half-brother's wife Herodias, fell in love with her. Both Antipas and Herodias then agreed to divorce their mates and live together. The historian Josephus confirmed this arrangement when he stated that Herodias, "took upon her to confound the laws of our country (Israel), and divorced herself from her husband while he was alive . . ." (ibid.).

John the Baptist condemned the marriage of Antipas and Herodias on the grounds it was both incestuous (Leviticus 18:16) and adulterous (Leviticus 20:21). His condemnation got him thrown in prison by Herod Antipas. Herodias' desire to have John killed came to fruition on Herod's birthday when she used Salome, her daughter, to request the Baptist's head on a platter.

Romans 16:11

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1Timothy 1:20, 2Timothy 2:17 - 18

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James (brother of Jesus)
Acts 12:17, 15:13, 21:18
1Corinthians 15:7, Galatians 1:19, 2:9, 12

This James is one of the physical half-brothers (same mother, different father) of Jesus Christ. He was a leader in the early church, especially in Jerusalem, and presided over the Jerusalem conference. He also wrote one of the books of the New Testament named after him.

James (the Greater)
Matthew 4:21 - 22, 10:2, 17:1,
20:20 - 23, 26:37, 27:56
Mark 1:19 - 20, 29, 3:17, 5:37, 9:2,
10:35 - 41, 13:3, 14:33, 15:40, 16:1
Luke 5:10, 6:14, 8:51, 9:28, 54
John 21:2, Acts 1:13, 12:1 - 2

This James, sometimes referred to as James the Greater to distinguish him from another apostle named James, was the brother of fellow early disciple John. He was the sixth person called and chosen to be one of Jesus' twelve apostles. He, as well as John, Peter and Andrew, were fishermen who often fished together (Luke 5:10, Matthew 4:18).

The New Testament indicates that James was one of the three closest disciples to Christ (Mark 1:29, 5:37). He, as well as Peter and John, were the only witnesses to Jesus' transfiguration (Matthew 17:1).

This James became the first of the twelve apostles to suffer martyrdom when he was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa around Passover in 44 A.D. (Acts 12:1 - 2).

When God's builds his New Jerusalem, the gemstone that will be an everlasting memorial to this James' efforts will be a carnelian stone.

James (the Less)
Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18, 15:40, 16:1
Luke 6:15, Acts 1:13, 12:17

This James, sometimes referred to as "the Less" (Mark 15:40) to distinguish him from another original apostle named James, was the son of Alphaeus. He was also the brother of both original apostles Judas (also called Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus) and Simon the Canaanite (Simon the Zealot).

Not much is known about this James. Foxe's Book of Martyrs believes he lived to the age of ninety-four at which time he was beaten and stoned to death by Jews.

When God's builds his New Jerusalem, the gemstone that will be an everlasting memorial to this James' efforts will be a topaz.

Queen Jezebel of Israel
Queen Jezebel of Israel

Acts 17:5 - 9, Romans 16:21

See people connected to Paul listing.

Revelation 2:20

Jezebel, mentioned only in the New Testament book of Revelation, was likely not the actual name of the woman being discussed. She was likely labeled this because she exhibited some of the characteristics of the original Jezebel, one of the most evil women in the Bible.

Access our list of Old Testament people for more information about the original Jezebel.

Acts 4:6

This John (also called Jonathan) was a son of Ananus (Annas) the High Priest. The John mentioned in Acts 4 served as High Priest from 36 to 37 A.D. after which he was dismissed from this responsibility. He was reappointed to this religious position at the temple in 44 A.D. Nothing more is stated about him in the New Testament.

John (the Apostle)
Matthew 4:21, 10:2, 17:1
Mark 1:19, 3:17, 5:37, 9:2, 38,
10:35, 41, 13:3, 14:33
Luke 5:10, 6:14, 8:51, 9:28, 49, 54, 22:8
Acts 1:13, 3:1 - 4, 11, 4:13, 19, 8:14, 12:2
Galatians 2:9, Revelation 1:1, 4, 9, 21:2, 8

John was one of the first two disciples called by Jesus. He is the brother of James (James the Greater) who also was one of the first disciples. John and Andrew (another early disciple) were initially followers of John the Baptist (John 1:35 - 40).

Jesus humorously nicknamed John and his brother James "the sons of thunder" in recognition of their sometimes impulsively misplaced behavior (Mark 3:17). He, along with James (the Greater) and Peter were the only three future apostles to witness Jesus' transfiguration (Matthew 17). The New Testament strongly indicates John was the closest disciple to Christ (see John 13:23 - 25).

John wrote five New Testament books during his ministry. He likely died around 100 A.D. after authoring the book of Revelation and canonizing the New Testament shortly thereafter. For still more information, please read his listing under people connected to Paul.

When God's builds his eternal New Jerusalem, the gemstone that will be an everlasting memorial to his efforts will either be a jasper or a sapphire.

John the Baptist
Matthew 3, 4, 9:14, 11, 14, 16:14,
17:13, 21:25 - 32
Mark 1:4 - 14, 2:18, 6, 8:28, 11:30 - 32
Luke 1, 3, 5:33, 7, 9:7, 9, 19, 11:1,
16:16, 20:4 - 6
John 1, 3, 4:1, 5:33 - 36, 10:40 - 41
Acts 1:5, 22, 10:37, 11:16, 13:24 - 25,
18:25, 19:3 - 4

John, a Nazarite from the time he was born, was born six months before Jesus. His miraculous birth in 5 B.C. was the beginning of the fulfillment of several Old Testament prophecies (John 1:19 - 23, Matthew 17:10 - 13). The purpose of His ministry, which lasted from 26 to 29 A.D., was to prepare the people for the ministry of Jesus.

After condemning the incestuous marriage of Herod Antipas (Mark 6:17 - 18) he was thrown in prison. Herod, on his birthday, murdered John to fulfill a promise made to his wife's daughter Salome.

Matthew 1, 2:13, 19,
Luke 1:27, 2, 3:23, 4:22
John 1:45, 6:42

Joseph was the betrothed husband of Mary when she became pregnant with Jesus through the power of God's spirit. He was a just man who died sometime after Jesus' 12th birthday. For more information, see our article dedicated to the life of Joseph.

Joseph (Barsabas, Justus)
Acts 1:21 - 23

This Joseph was also called Barsabas and Justus. He was one of only two men, the other being Matthias, the Jerusalem church considered worthy to replace Judas Iscariot as one of the twelve apostles. After the decision was placed in God's hands, and lots were thrown, it was Matthias and not Joseph that was chosen. Nothing more is known about him.

Joseph of Arimathea
Matthew 27:57 - 60, Mark 15:42 - 47
Luke 23:50 - 56, John 19:38 - 42

Joseph of Arimathea was a rich member of the Sanhedrin who secretly believed in Jesus. After Christ's crucifixion, he got Pontius Pilate to give him the body. Both Joseph and Nicodemus then wrapped Jesus' body in fine linen with a mixture of myrrh and aloes. They then, in fulfillment of prophecy, laid him to rest in Joseph's new tomb (Matthew 27, Mark 15, Luke 23, John 19).

Matthew 13:55, Mark 6:3

Joses was one of four half-brothers (same mother, different father) of Jesus Christ. Nothing else is known about him.

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