Old Testament People

Aaron to Gideon

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Moses' brother who was made his spokesman by God. Went with Moses to Pharaoh demanding children of Israel's release from slavery. Aaron was made the Old Testament's first High Priest. He and Moses were not allowed to enter the Promised Land due to their sin in the wilderness of Zin.

Adam and Eve's second son. The Bible is silent regarding whether or not he married. Murdered by jealous older brother Cain. Had faith in God (Hebrews 11) and called righteous by Jesus (Matthew 23:35).

Originally named Abram. Left home in Ur to go to the Promised Land. Faith tested when asked to sacrifice son Isaac. Promised by God he would be father of many nations and kings. The New Testament calls him the father of the faithful (Romans 4:16).

King David's son who attempted to take over the throne. While fleeing after losing a battle with David's army he is caught in a tree and killed by Joab.

What was Aaron's great magic trick?
Abraham's journey to Promised Land
Old Testament Timeline

Adam's name means 'red' or 'red earth.' He is the first created human being. A woman, first called Ish in Hebrew, and later named Eve, is created from one of his ribs. Sinned when he ate fruit of tree of good and evil (Genesis 3). Was cast out of Eden along with Eve. Lived 930 years.

Worst king of Israel. Married the evil pagan woman Jezebel. Expanded Israel's worship of pagan gods. Elijah the prophet confronted him for his evil.

Abel killed by Cain
Abel killed by Cain

Amos is considered one of the Bible's Minor Prophets. His contemporaries were Isaiah and Hosea. Prophesied against Israel's oppression of poor, sexual immorality, luxury and corruption.

Prophet asked by Balak, the king of the Moabites, to curse Israel as they camped in the wilderness. God warned Balaam not to curse Israel by miraculously having a horse talk and the Angel of the Lord appear ready to kill him (Numbers 22 - 23). Taught Balak how to corrupt the Israelites and bring judgment down upon themselves (Numbers 31).

Baruch was from the tribe of Judah. Secretary for the prophet Jeremiah who wrote all his prophecies then read them to the people.

Bathsheba was the wife of Uriah the Hittite who served in David's military. King David committed adultery with her then set up Uriah to be killed in battle. Child born out of adultery dies. Marries David and become mother of Solomon and Nathan.

Last king of the Babylonian empire. Saw miraculous "handwriting on the wall" which Daniel revealed was God's judgment on him and Babylon. He was killed the same night he saw the handwriting. Darius the Mede, with consent of Persia's Cyrus the Great, takes Babylon.

Born to Jacob and Rachel. Was Jacob's youngest of twelve sons.

Was Rachel's handmaid given to her by her father Laban. Rachel, who was barren, gave Bilhah to Jacob so that she could have children through her (Genesis 30). Gave birth to two sons of Jacob named Dan and Naphtali.

Boaz married Ruth (who authored the Bible book of Ruth) and was the great-grandfather of King David.

Adam and Eve's first child who was a tiller of the ground. Became jealous of younger brother Abel and murdered him. His punishment from God was to be "marked" and to live as a fugitive his entire life. He eventually married one of his sisters.

Cyrus the Great
Considered first true king of the Persian empire. Conquered the Median Empire in 549 B.C. and the Babylonian empire in 539 B.C. Issued decree to allow Jews to return to Jerusalem.

Daniel was a descendent of a noble Jewish family who was taken captive by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon when he conquered Judah. He was highly likely a eunuch or was made one after being captured. He became a chief advisor to the king and eventually was made third ruler of the kingdom (Daniel 5).

God gave Daniel the ability to interpret dreams. He survived being thrown in lion's den (Daniel 6). He was blessed with prophecies that foretold of future world empires leading up to the return of Christ. Learn more details about the fascinating life of Daniel!

Darius I the Great
Darius was a Persian king who authorized the completion of rebuilding Jerusalem's Temple. The work God moved him to initiate on the temple was completed in 516 B.C.

Youngest son of Jesse. Greatest king of Israel who ruled 40 years. As a young man killed Goliath the giant. Won military battles (see our map of his victories) that expanded Israel's kingdom. Wrote most of the book of Psalms. Conquered Jerusalem, made it his capital and brought to it the Ark of the Covenant. Committed adultery with Bathsheba. Son Solomon followed him as king.

A prophetess who, with the help of Barak, freed Israel from the oppression brought by the King of Canaan. She is the only female to serve as a Judge of Israel. Deborah and Barak served together as Israel's Judges for 40 years (Judges 4 - 5).

Philistine harlot who was bribed to entice Samson to reveal secret of his strength. Had Samson's hair cut while he slept, rendering him weak.

High Priest who judged Israel 40 years after death of Samson. Taught a very young Samuel who eventually became a great prophet.

Elijah is considered the quintessential Old Testament prophet (Luke 9:30). He warned and punished King Ahab, considered the worst of Israel's kings, for his sins. One of his hallmark miracles was raising a widow's son from the dead. Had confrontation with Israel's false prophets which ended in their death. After fleeing death threats from Jezebel is told to anoint two kings and make Elisha his successor. A heavenly provided chariot of fire miraculously took him to a safe location in the sight of him to a location away from Elisha.

Elisha was Elijah's prophetic successor. He received 'a double portion' of Elijah's spirit after seeing him leave by chariot of fire. Brought back to life a child who died in farming accident. A dead man is miraculously brought back to life after it accidently touches Elisha's bones!

There are at least two "Enochs" in Scripture. The first is the eldest son of Cain (Genesis 4:17). The second Enoch is the son of Jared (Genesis 5:18) and father of Methuselah (verse 21), the oldest person who ever lived (969 years). This Enoch was 365 years old when God "translated" him, meaning He moved him miraculously to another place on earth to (likely) avoid being killed.

Esau is also called Edom. Son of Isaac and older twin brother of Jacob. Sold his birthright for bowl of lentil soup. Founder of the Edomites.

Queen Esther was the Jewish wife of a Persian king. Told by Mordecai of plot to destroy all the Jews in the kingdom. Foils plot by Haman to kill Mordecai and all the Jews. The Jewish festival of Purim celebrates the events listed her book. Access our in-depth study of the Old Testament book Esther wrote, one of only two Scriptural writings penned by women!

First woman created. Made from one of Adam's ribs (Genesis 2:21 - 22). Her name of Eve was given her by Adam after both of them sinned by by eating from tree of good and evil (Genesis 3) and was thrown out of Eden with Adam. Gave birth to Cain, Abel, Seth and many other children.

Gideon going into battle
Gideon going into battle

One of the Bible's major prophets. Taken into Babylonian captivity by King Nebuchadnezzar. Known for having visions of 'wheel in the middle of a wheel' (Ezekiel 1, 10) and valley of dry bones (Ezekiel 37). Learn more about this prophet in our detailed study of Ezekiel's life!

An Aaronic priest who led the effort, along with the Great Synagogue, to collect and canonize the writings that would become our Old Testament. His efforts produced a set of Scriptures divided up as the Law, the Prophets and the Writings.

Gideon was called by God to deliver Israel from Midianite and Amalekite oppression. Took 300 men and surrounded the camp of Israel's enemies (Judges 7). After all the men blew trumpets and broke pitchers with torches in them the enemy became confused and fought amongst themselves. Gideon served 40 years as Israel's judge.

For more info on this fascinating Biblical person see our article detailing Gideon's life as well as our map of his famous battles!

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Old Testament People
Aaron to Gideon
Goliath to Melchizedek
Methusaleh to Samson
Sarah to Zipporah
Additional Study Materials
Why did God reject Cain's offering?
Was Eve really tempted by a snake?
Who were the toughest Israelite women?
Important New Testament People!

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