The Roman Province of Cappadocia is written about only twice in Scripture. It was established in 17 A.D. and was the most eastern part of Rome's empire and the biggest of Asia Minor's provincial areas. The region known as Lycaonia (Acts 14:6, 11) crosses both this province and Galatia.
Although the Bible contains almost no details regarding Cappadocia, the Apostle Peter addressed his first epistle to Christians living in the region and surrounding areas (1Peter 1:1).
A classic reference book on Apostle Paul's life states the following regarding the political history of Cappadocia.
"Crossing the country southwards from the birthplace of Aquila towards that of Apostle Paul, we traverse the wide and varied region which formed the province of Cappadocia, intermediate between Pontus and Cilicia. The period of its provincial existence began in the reign of Tiberius.
"Its last king was Archelaus, the contemporary of the Jewish tetrarch of the same name (Matthew 2:22). Extending from the frontier of Galatia to the river Euphrates, and bounded on the south by the chain of Taurus, it was the largest province of Asia Minor" (Life and Epistles of Apostle Paul by Conybeare and Howson, Chapter 8).
Cappadocia was a mountainous province whose excellent pastures provided grazing for horses and mules.
"Cappadocia was a rough and generally sterile mountain region . . . Its chief rivers were the Halys and the Melas. Its fine pastures supported (an) abundance of good horses and mules" (A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography by William Smith, page 171).
Pentecost in Jerusalem
And they were all amazed, and marveled, saying to one another, "Behold, are not all these who are speaking Galileans? Then how is it that we hear each one in our own language in which we were born?
Parthians and Medes and Elamites, and those who inhabit Mesopotamia, and Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia . . . (Acts 2:7 - 9, HBFV).