Alexander III, son of Greek King Philip of Macedon, is better known with his nickname "the Great." Born in 356 B.C. he is considered by most historians to be one of, if not THE, best military commanders in world history. Alexander, who was never defeated in battle, controlled a vast empire that spanned most of the known world by the time of his death in 323 B.C. at age 33.
After his father had unified the many states in Greece, Alexander (who ruled from 336 to 323 B.C.) took to conquering many foreign lands which included Persia, Judea, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt and others. He also conquered lands as far east as Punjab, India. Many times, after conquering a particular territory, he built cities in order to establish his rule.
Perhaps the most celebrated city Alexander the Great built was Alexandria (named after himself) in Egypt. It was founded around 332 on Egypt's Mediterranean Sea coast in the Nile delta region. Alexandria was peopled by colonies of Greeks and Jews and quickly became the greatest Greek city of its time. In the first century A.D., the city (which is referred to four times in Scripture) became the home of one of the earliest Christian churches.
Before he died, Alexander the Great made military plans to expand into the Arabian peninsula, after which he would travel west and conquer the territories of Rome, the Iberian Peninsula and Carthage. He originally dreamt of conquering by going east, as far as the "ends of the world" and the Great Outer Sea, as he conveyed to Aristotle his childhood tutor. He died in the palace of Babylon's Nebuchadnezzar II in 323 B.C. His early death may have been brought about by poisoning, typhoid fever or possibly alcoholism.
Alexander's life and military conquests affected world history long after his death. His victories paved the way for the rise of Greek settlements and Greek cultural influence (Hellenistic Age) over a large area of the known world. The AMG Concise Bible Dictionary, in an article on archaeology, states the following regarding the influence of Alexander's military victories on the lands of the Bible.
"The widespread conquests of Alexander the Great introduced an era that brought dramatic change throughout the region of the Bible story. Greek culture and language became dominant everywhere. This had a great effect on Jewish history, bringing conflict between those Jews who gladly accepted the new ways and those who tried to resist them" (see our article on the second century B.C. Maccabean resistance to Greek culture).
God foretold, through the prophet Daniel, the reign of this Greek conqueror and what would happen to his vast kingdom after his death (Daniel 8:21 - 22, 11:3 - 4). It was not passed to his sons nor was the kingdom ruled by any family member. Instead, it was divided up between his four chief generals (known in Biblical prophecy as "the four winds of heaven"). Within fifteen years of his death not one of Alexander's family remained alive.
His wife Statira was murdered by his other wife Roxana.
His brother Aridaeus, after ruling for slightly more than six years, was murdered along with his wife. The murder was carried out by order of his mother Olympias.
Soldiers killed Olympias in retaliation for Aridaeus' death.
His son Alexander Aegus and mother Roxana were murdered by order of General Cassander.
The son and mother of Alexander the Great, Hercules and Barsine, were killed in private by Polysperchon.