|c. 72 B.C. |
Herod the Great is born to Antipater I the Idumaean (which means 'from the land of Edom').
Roman troops, led by Pompey, occupy Palestine in the name of the Roman Republic. The empire conquers Jerusalem and she falls.
A contention between Pompey and Julius Caesar over the leadership of the Roman state leads to what is known as the Great Roman Civil War.
|48 B.C. |
Pompey, who fled to Egypt after his defeat by Caesar in the Battle of Pharsalus, is murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy XIII.
Julius Caesar appoints Antipater I the Idumaean (founder of the Herodian Dynasty) to be procurator of Judea in recognition of the aid he gave him during Rome's civil war. Antipater is also given the right to collect taxes. He makes his son Herod governor of Galilee.
Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March.
Antipater I is murdered by poison.
Mark Antony elevates Herod the Great to the rank of tetrarch of Jerusalem and Galilee.
Herod is appointed, in Rome, as King of Judea ("King of the Jews") by the Roman Senate.
|37 B.C. |
Although appointed King of Judea in 40 B.C., it takes another three years before Herod and the army travel to Palestine and conquer Jerusalem. Herod because sole ruler of Judea.
Aristobulus IV (31 to 7 B.C.), son of Herod and his second wife Mariamne, is born.
End of the Roman Republic. Augustus Caesar becomes Roman Emperor.
Herod Archelaus, the son of Herod the Great and Malthace the Samaritan, is born.
|before 20 B.C. |
Herod Antipas (Antipater), the son of Herod the Great and Malthace the Samaritan, is born.
|20 B.C. |
Herod, desirous of gaining the favor of the Jews, begins work to restore and expand Jerusalem's temple, which had laid unfinished for about five hundred years.
|10 B.C. |
Agrippa I (known as Herod Agrippa in the New Testament), son of Aristobulus IV and grandson of Herod of Great, is born.
c. 4 B.C.
Herod the Great dies in Jericho and is buried in Herodium, Judea. After his death Roman Emperor Augustus divides up his kingdom among some of his sons:
Herod Archelaus is made Ethnarch (a title of rule that is less than a king) of Samaria, Idumea (Edom) and a large part of Palestine. He rules from 4 B.C. to 6 A.D. when the Judea province is formed and put under direct Roman rule. Archelaus lives until c. 18 A.D.
Herod Antipas is made tetrarch of Galilee and Perea. He rules from 4 B.C. to 39 A.D. It was this Herod who, as the New Testament records, not only arrested and beheaded John the Baptist but also played a part in the crucifixion of Jesus.
Philip the Tetrarch (sometimes called Herod Philip II) is the son of Herod the Great and his fifth wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He is the half-brother of Herod Antipas and Herod Archelaus. Rome gives him the northeast part of his father's kingdom, which includes Batanea, Auranitis and Trachonitis. He rules from 4 B.C. to 34 A.D.
|27 / 28 A.D.|
Herod Agrippa II, son of Agrippa I, is born.
|39 A.D. |
After Herod Antipas' death in Gaul Herod Agrippa I (grandson of Herod the Great) is made ruler over Galilee and Perea as Roman tetrarch.
|44 A.D. |
Herod Agrippa I beheads the apostle James and has Peter arrested. Soon after God sends the angel of the Lord to kill him. He dies and is eaten by worms (Acts 12).
|48 A.D. |
Herod of Chalcis, the grandson of Herod the Great and brother of Herod Agrippa I, dies. He was tetrarch of Chalcis (a kingdom north of Judea) for an unknown period of time. Herod Agrippa II is made king of Chalcis and rules until 53 A.D. He is the last king in the Herodian dynasty of rule.
Work on Jerusalem's second temple (also known as Herod's temple) is finally completed.
|70 A.D. |
Roman legions, under the command of military commander Titus (later Emperor Titus), destroy Jerusalem and set fire to its temple.
Herod Agrippa II, the last of the Herodians, dies.