Old Testament Timeline

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3969 B.C.
Our research places God's creation of Adam and Eve in 3969 B.C. Ussher's famous chronology of the Old Testament places their creation in 4004, while other research suggests a date of 4024.

The first (civil) year of the Hebrew (Biblical) calendar began on Sunday, October 6 at 11:11 p.m. in 3761 B.C. (Julian). Jewish tradition places the creation of man on Friday, September 26 in 3760 B.C. (Julian) which is the last day of the first Hebrew year (the first year had only 355 days).

3969 - 3039
Adam, after his creation, lives to the age of 930 (Genesis 5:3 - 5).

3839 - 2927
Seth, Adam's third son (born after Cain killed Abel, Genesis 4:25 - 26), lives to the age of 912 (Genesis 5:3 - 8).

3734 - 2829
Enos, son of Seth, lives to 905 (Genesis 5:9 - 11).

3644 - 2734
Cainan, son of Enos, lives to 910 (Genesis 5:12 - 14).

3574 - 2679 B.C.
Mahalaleel, son of Cainan, lives to the age of 895 (Genesis 5:15 - 17).

3509 - 2547
Jared, son of Mahalaleel, lives to the age of 962 (Genesis 5:18 - 20).

3347 - 2982
Enoch, son of Jared, lives until the age of 365 (Genesis 5:21 - 24).

3282 - 2313
Methuselah, son of Enoch, becomes the oldest human to have ever lived when he dies at the age of 969 (Genesis 5:25 - 27).

3095 - 2318
Lamech, son of Methuselah, lives to become 777 years old (Genesis 5:28 - 31).

3095 to 3039
During this 56 year period, due to the incredibly long lifespans of humans, the first nine generations of humans are alive at the same time! Adam dies, in 3039, only 126 years before the birth of Noah.

2913 - 1963
Noah, son of Lamech, was 600 years old when the flood came and lived another 350 after it for a total of 950 years (Genesis 9:29).

God commands Noah, at the age of 480, to begin building a large ark (Genesis 6). Noah also begins to preach the need for humanity to repent of their wickedness and turn to God (2Peter 2:5).

2411 - 1811
Shem, one of Noah's three sons who survive the flood, lives to the age of 600 (Genesis 11:10 - 11).

God causes the Great Flood (Genesis 6 - 8).

2311 - 1873 B.C.
Arphaxad, the firstborn son of Shem, is born two years after the Flood when his father, Shem, was one hundred years old (Genesis 11:10 - 13). He lives until the age of 438.

2276 - 1843
Salah, son of Arphaxad, lives until the age of 433 (Genesis 11:12 - 15).

2246 - 1782
Eber, son of Salah, lives until the age of 464 (Genesis 11:14 - 17).

Possible date for the building of the tower of Babel. The tower was built by Nimrod who was the grandson of worldwide flood survivor Ham (Genesis 10:6 - 10, 11:1 - 9).

2212 - 1973
Peleg, son of Eber, lives to the age of 239 (Genesis 11:16 - 19).

2182 - 1943
Reu, son of Peleg, lives to 239 (Genesis 11:18 - 21).

2150 - 1920
Serug, son of Reu, lives to 230 (Genesis 11:20 - 23).

2120 - 1972
Nahor, the grandfather of Abraham, lives to be 148 years old (Genesis 11:22 - 23).

2091 - 1886
Terah, father of the patriarch Abraham, lives to the age of 205 (Genesis 11:22 - 23).

Abram (Abraham) is born (Genesis 25:7).

Abraham's father Terah decides to move out of Ur (Genesis 11:28). Those leaving with him include Abraham (Abram), Sarah (Sarai), Abraham's brother Nahor and his wife, as well as Lot and his wife (Genesis 11:29 - 31).

God calls Abram (later Abraham) at age 75 while he is living in Haran (Genesis 12).

c. 1880 - 1875 B.C.
The first war recorded in the Bible is led by Elam's King Chedorlaomer. His coalition of three other sovereigns seek to punish five kings (Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim and Zoar) who choose to no longer pay tribute. Chedorlaomer's forces, after conquering several peoples along the way, overcomes the five kings. Abraham, who enters the war when Lot and his family are taken prisoners, defeats Elam's king and saves his nephew (Genesis 14).

God promises Abram, at age 85, he will have a son and establishes a covenant with him (Genesis 15). According to the apostle Paul (Galatians 3:17), the time span between this covenant and when the Israelites are freed from Egypt is 430 years.

Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed one year before the birth of Isaac (Genesis 18 - 19).

Isaac is born to Abraham and Sarah (Genesis 35:28).

God tests Abraham, at the age of 115, by commanding he sacrifice his only son Isaac (Genesis 22).

Isaac, at age 40, marries Rebekah (Genesis 25:20).

Isaac and Rebekah give birth to twin boys Jacob (later renamed Israel) and Esau (Genesis 25:24 - 26).

Abraham dies at the age of 175 (Genesis 25:7 - 8).

Jacob cheats his brother Esau out of the birthright blessing given by their father Isaac. He then flees Canaan to a relative named Laban in order to escape his brother's rage. At the age of 77 Jacob agrees to work seven years for Laban to earn the right to marry his youngest daughter Rachel (Genesis 29:1 - 20).

Jacob, at the age of 84, is tricked by Laban into marrying his oldest daughter Leah instead of his beloved Rachel. Jacob arranges to work another seven years for Rachel and is allowed to marry her one week after marrying Leah (Genesis 29:20 - 30).

1709 B.C.
Jacob, in order to build up his personal wealth, agrees to work for Laban for a few more years. Joseph, Jacob's eleventh son, is born (Genesis 30 - 31).

Jacob, along with his family of four wives, eleven sons and one daughter, leaves Laban and travels back to the land of Canaan (Genesis 31:3).

c. 1692
Rachel dies giving birth to Jacob's last son Benjamin. She is buried near the outskirts of Bethlehem after which the family continues their journey to Hebron where Isaac is living (Genesis 35:16 - 20).

Joseph receives his coat of many colors from his father Jacob. Soon after receiving the gift, at the age of 17, he is sold into slavery by his brothers (Genesis 37).

Isaac, the son of Abraham, dies at the age of 180 (Genesis 35:28 - 29).

Joseph, at the age of 30 (Genesis 41:46), interprets a dream experienced by Pharaoh to mean Egypt will have seven years of bountiful harvests followed by seven years of famine. The Egyptian ruler rewards Joseph's insight, given by God, by making him the second most powerful person in Egypt (Genesis 41).

1679 - 1672
Egypt experiences seven years of bountiful harvests. It is during this period that Joseph's two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, are born (Genesis 41:47 - 53).

1672 - 1665
Egypt, including Canaan and the rest of the world (Genesis 41:56), endures seven years of drought conditions and famine (Genesis 41:53 - 57).

Jacob and his family, after two years of famine in the land (Genesis 45:6), migrate to the land of Egypt (Genesis 46 - 47:9).

Jacob (Israel) blesses Joseph's sons Manasseh and Ephraim and well as his own twelve sons (Genesis 48). He then dies at the age of 147. His sons bury him in Hebron where Abraham and Isaac are buried (Genesis 49:29 - 50:13).

Joseph dies at the age of 110 in Egypt (Genesis 50:22 - 26).

1550 - 1069
Period when the Egyptian Empire, also called the New Kingdom of Egypt, is at the height of its power and prosperity.

1550 - 1526 B.C.
Ahmose I reigns as Egypt's Pharaoh (dates disputed).

1526 - 1506
Amenhotep I reigns as Egypt's Pharaoh (dates disputed).

Moses is born (Exodus 2).

1506 - 1493
Thutmose I reigns as Egyptian Pharaoh.

1493 - 1479
Thutmose II reigns as Egyptian Pharaoh.

Moses, at the age of 40 (Acts 7:23), flees Egypt after killing an Egyptian man who was beating a Hebrew slave (Exodus 2). He ends up in the land of Midian where he takes a Midianite woman named Zipporah as his wife.

1486 - 1446
Moses spends forty years of his life as a shepherd. His life drastically changes, however, when God calls him to save the Israelites from Egyptian bondage (Exodus 3).

1479 - 1458
Hatshepsut reigns as Pharaoh of Egypt.

1479 - 1425 B.C.
Thutmose III reigns as Pharaoh of Egypt. He is co-regent with his stepmother Hatshesut from 1479 to 1458.

Moses and Aaron, in September, return to Pharaoh after he increased the workload of the Israelites. Aaron, under Moses' direction, has his staff miraculously turn into a serpent. Pharaoh's magicians, however, are able to duplicate the miracle. Pharaoh continues to refuse to release the people from their Egyptian bondage (Exodus 7:1 - 12).

In late September Moses and Aaron subject Egypt to the first of what will become ten plagues designed to free the Israelites from bondage (Exodus 7:15 - 25).

The Israelites keep and eat the first Passover on Sunday, April 10 after sunset. Sunset on this day begins Nisan 14 in Hebrew civil year 2316. The Passover runs until the following day, Monday, at sunset (when Nisan 14 ends and the 15th begins).

The tenth and last plague to come upon Egypt, the death of the firstborn, takes place at midnight on April 10 (Exodus 12:6, 12, 29 - 30). Every Egyptian household is affected by the plague. Pharaoh, after the death angel kills the firstborn of man and beast, sends a message to Moses and Aaron telling them that they and all the Israelites are free to leave Egypt (Exodus 12:31 - 32)!

The children of Israel then leave Egypt, in what is commonly referred to as the Exodus, one day after they ate the Passover (Numbers 33:1 - 3). They leave at a time called "the night to be much observed" (Exodus 12:42) which is the start of the high Holy Day known as the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

The Israelites, soon after leaving Egypt, are attacked by the Amalekites. Moses, in response, has Joshua gather and lead an army against the enemy. Joshua's forces are ultimately victorious (Exodus 17, Deuteronomy 25).

The Israelites are then led by Moses to the wilderness of Sinai. On Sivan 10 (Sunday, June 5), which is the Day of Pentecost, they receive the Ten Commandments directly from God (Exodus 20).

1445 - 1405
Moses writes the first five books listed in modern Bibles.

The tabernacle in the wilderness is the temporary structure God commanded the Israelites to build so that He could be worshipped (Exodus 25:8). The Ark of the Covenant was located within the tabernacle along with various special pieces of furniture and implements that were designated holy. It was anointed by Moses, in service to the Eternal, on the first day of the first month of the second year after leaving Egypt (Exodus 40:1 - 2). This date, Nisan 1 in Hebrew civil year 2317, corresponds to Saturday (the Sabbath) on March 18.

Moses is commanded, "on the first day of the second month, in the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt," or on Monday, April 17 (the day portion of Iyar 1) to take a census of Israel (Numbers 1).

On the twentieth day of the second month (Iyar 20, Numbers 10:11), or Saturday, May 6, the cloud over the Ark that symbolized God's presence lifted high above it. This signaled that the Israelites were to move from the wilderness of Sinai to the wilderness of Paran (verses 12 - 13).

Moses, roughly around August (when the first ripe grapes appear on vines, Numbers 13:20), sends twelve spies into the Promised Land. Ten of the spies, upon their return, give a fearful and faithless report that leads the Israelites to refuse to enter their inheritance of land. God's response is to punish his people with thirty-nine more years of wandering the desert (Deuteronomy 8:2).

Moses, a short time after he led Israel to victory over the Midianites (Numbers 31), dies on Mount Nebo at the age of 120. He is personally buried by God (Deuteronomy 34).

The Israelites, on Nisan 10 (Saturday, April 15), which is four days before Passover (Joshua 4:19), cross over the Jordan River and enter the land of Canaan. This act ends their forty years of wandering (Deuteronomy 34:1 - 6). The walls of Jericho, during the spring, miraculously collapse and allow the Israelites to experience their first military victory west of the Jordan River (Joshua 6). They then conquer the city of Ai.

1405 - 1398
The Israelites, led by Joshua, wage a seven-year war to take possession of the land promised them by God (Joshua 10 - 12).

The land of Canaan (Promised Land) is divided by Joshua, using lots, among the children of Israel (Joshua 14).

1398 - 1380
Joshua serves as Israel's first Judge.

1358 - 1350
The children of Israel are oppressed by Cushan, King of Mesopotamia (Judges 3:8).

1350 - 1310
God raises up Othniel to save his people from Cushan. He defeats the enemy and then serves as a Judge in Israel (Judges 3:9 - 11).

1310 - 1292
The children of Israel are oppressed by Eglon, King of Moab (Judges 3:12 - 14).

1292 - 1212
Ehud, a left-handed warrior, frees the people from oppression by the King of Moab. He then serves as Israel's Judge (Judges 3:15 - 30).

1212 - 1192
The children of Israel are oppressed by Jabin, King of Canaan (Judges 4:1 - 4).

1192 - 1152 B.C.
Deborah and Barak are called by God to free his people from oppression. They are victorious in battle and serve as Israel's Judges (Judges 4 - 5).

1153 - 1113
Eli serves as both High Priest and Judge over Israel. He dies, at age 98, when he falls backwards in a chair and breaks his neck (1Samuel 1- 4, 14:3).

1152 - 1145
The Israelites are oppressed by the Midianites (Judges 6:1).

1145 - 1105
God raises up Gideon to save his people yet again. Gideon's 300-man army defeats the Midianite forces in a great victory. He then serves as a Judge for forty years (Judges 6 - 8).

1105 - 1102
Abimelech, one of Gideon's seventy sons, sets himself up as a Judge and has the city of Shechem make him king. He kills 68 of his 69 brothers and rules tyranically over the people until a milestone dropped on his head kills him (Judges 9:1 - 54).

1105 - 1065
The Israelites are oppressed by the Philistines in the Southern and Western parts of the nation (Judges 13:1, 1Samuel 7:13).

1105 - 1087
The Israelites, in the east, are oppressed by the Ammonites (Judges 10:7 - 8).

1102 - 1079
Tola serves as Israel's Judge in the northern part of the country (Judges 10:1 - 2).

1087 - 1081
Jephthah is called by God to save his people from Ammonite oppression. After his victories he serves as Israel's Judge east of the Jordan River (Judges 11; 12:1 - 7).

1085 - 1065
Samson, while serving as a Judge in Israel's southern and western sections for twenty years, is inspired to begin freeing the people from Philistine domination. His one-man war with Israel's enemy ends when he sacrifices himself to kill 3,000 Philistines by bringing down their prized pagan temple (Judges 13 - 16).

1085 - 1053
The prophet Samuel serves as Israel's Judge (1Samuel 7:6, 15 - 17).

1081 - 1074
Ibzan serves as Israel's Judge east of the Jordan River (Judges 12:8 - 10).

1079 - 1057
Jair serves as Israel's Judge in the northern part of the country (Judges 10:3 - 5).

1074 - 1064
Elon serves as Israel's Judge east of the Jordan (Judges 12:11 - 12).

1067 - 1050
Samuel the prophet writes the books of Judges and Joshua.

1064 - 1056 B.C.
Abdon serves as Israel's Judge east of the Jordan (Judges 12:13 - 14).

The book of Ruth is written.

1053 - 1050
Samuel's sons serve as Israel's Judges (1Samuel 8:1 - 5).

1050 - 1010 B.C.
King Saul, anointed by Samuel, reigns over a united Israel.

King David, his father Jesse's eighth and youngest son, is born in the city of Bethlehem. He is the great-grandson of Ruth and Boaz (Ruth 4:17 - 22) and represents the 33rd Biblical generation of humans since man was created.

c. 1025
David is anointed by Samuel to eventually become Israel's king. He then has his famous confrontation with Goliath in which is kills the giant and goes on a whirlwind tour promoting his victory (1Samuel 17).

1020 - 1012
David flees Saul's court and goes on the run as the king actively seeks to have him killed (1Samuel 19 - 24).

The prophet Samuel dies (1Samuel 25:1).

Saul and his son Jonathan are killed while battling the Philistines (1Samuel 31, 2Samuel 1). After Saul's death David is made King over the tribe of Judah. He will rule over only this single tribe for roughly seven and one-half years (2Samuel 2:4, 5:1 - 5, 1Chronicles 3:4, 29:27).

1010 - 1003
Abner, the general of King Saul's army, engages in a civil war with David's army led by Joab. Abner wants Ishbosheth, one of Saul's surviving sons, to become ruler over all Israel (2Samuel 3).

Abner succeeds in having Ishbosheth, at the age of forty, assume the throne over all of Israel except the tribe of Judah (2Samuel 2:10).

Ishbosheth, after two years of rule, is murdered by two of his military captains (2Samuel 2:10, 4:1 - 7). All the tribes of Israel, after his death, agree to anoint David as king over a united Israel. David will rule another 33 years until his death in 970 B.C.

970 - 930
King Solomon assumes the throne of Israel after the death of his father David. During his reign He writes Psalm 72, Proverbs 1 - 24, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon.

966 - 965
Solomon begins building Jerusalem's temple (1Kings 6:1).

959 - 958
Solomon completes building Jerusalem's temple (1Kings 6:38).

Israel, in one of the most momentous events of the Old Testament, splits into two distinct kingdoms. The first is the Kingdom of Israel (composed of ten of Israel's tribes) which will ultimately establish its capital in Samaria. The second is the Kingdom of Judah (composed of Judah, Benjamin, and Levi) with its capital in Jerusalem.

930 - 723 B.C.
Period of the nineteen Kings of Israel.

930 - 586 B.C.
Period of the twenty rulers (19 Kings and 1 Queen) over the Kingdom of Judah.

Judah's King Asa battles against an Ethiopian named Zerah whose one million man army seeks to conquer his kingdom. Asa wins a resounding victory after crying out to God for help (2Chronicles 14:9 - 15).

884 - 612
Period when the Neo-Assyrian Empire is a world power.

Israel's King Ahab, along with a confederation of kings, battles Assyrian King Shalmaneser III at Qarqar. Ahab, after this battle, dies while fighting against the Arameans at Ramoth Gilead (1Kings 22:3 - 35).

Jehu is anointed the new ruler of Israel and brings to an end the Omride dynasty of rule by killing King Joram. He also murders Ahab's evil wife Jezebel along with Ahab's entire household (2Kings 9 - 10). He then begins to pay tribute money to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III.

Queen Athaliah, the only female to reign over either Israel or Judah, begins to rule Judah in 841. She lasts only until 835 when Joash, hidden from her destruction of David's descendants, becomes king at the age of seven (2Kings 11, 2Chronicles 22 - 23).

798 to c. 400
The books of the twelve Minor Prophets are written.

King Jehoash of Israel, two years after taking the throne, begins to pay tribute money to Assyria's Adad-nirari III.

745 - 727
Period when Tiglath-pileser III ("Pul") is King of Assyria. King Menahem of Israel (rules 752 to 742) pays him tribute money in 743 (2Kings 15:19 - 20). Pul is also paid tribute money by Judah's kings Azariah (Uzziah, rules 792 to 740) and Ahaz (2Kings 16:8, rules 735 to 715).

740 - 686
Books of Isaiah, 1Kings, 1Samuel and 2Samuel are written.

727 - 722 B.C.
Shalmaneser V reigns as King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He forces Israel's King Hoshea (ruled 732 to 723) to pay him tribute money (2Kings 17:1 - 3).

Samaria is conquered by Assyrian King Shalmaneser V. Those living in the Kingdom of Israel are taken out of the land to Assyria (2Kings 17:1 - 6).

715 - 686
Hezekiah writes Psalms 120 - 134 and has Proverbs 25 - 29 written for him.

705 - 681
Sennacherib reigns as King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

God has the Angel of the Lord kill 185,000 of Sennacherib's troops as they prepare to enter Jerusalem (2Kings 18 - 19).

627 - 585
Book of Jeremiah, Psalm 89 and a part of 2Kings written.

Nineveh, capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, falls to Babylonian King Nabopolassar.

612 - 539
Period when the Neo-Babylonian Empire is a world power.

Judah's King Josiah, who began his reign in 640, tries to stop the Egyptian army from traveling through Judah on their way to battle the Babylonian Empire. His efforts fail, however, and he is killed at Megiddo (2Kings 23:29 - 30, 2Chronicles 35:20 - 35).

608 - 586 B.C.
Book of Lamentations written.

King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon makes his first attack of Jerusalem. He takes as captives the prophet Daniel along with his companions and others (Daniel 1:1 - 3, 2Kings 24:1).

605 - 530
Book of Daniel written.

Jerusalem is attacked a second time by Babylon. King Jehoiachin, Judah's eighteen year old ruler (2Kings 24:8), is taken captive as well as his family, servants and many others. Zedekiah is set up as a puppet king over Judah (2Kings 24 - 25).

597 - 570
Book of Ezekiel written.

586 B.C.
Nebuchadnezzar attacks Jerusalem a third time. He destroys the city and burns down God's temple. The remaining people in Judah are taken into captivity except for the poorest of the poor (2Kings 24 - 25).

559 - 530
Cyrus the Great reigns as King of the Persian Empire.

555 - 539
Nabonidus reigns as the last Neo-Babylonian king.

King Nabonidus fights and surrenders to Persian king Cyrus the Great. The first part of Daniel's 70 weeks prophecy (Daniel 9:24 - 26), the duration of which is seven weeks (49 prophetic years), begins with "the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem" (Daniel 9:25). This command, which allowed captive Jews to return to Judea and rebuild Jerusalem (and its temple), was issued by Cyrus in 539 B.C. (Ezra 1:1 - 4).

539 - 331
Period when Persia is a world empire.

521 - 486
Darius I the Great is King of the Persian Empire.

The rebuilding of Jerusalem's temple is completed.

500s - 400s
Ezra and the Great Assembly complete the canonization of the Old Testament.

c. 480
Book of Esther written.

c. 455
Books of Ezra, 1Chronicles and 2Chronicles are written.

c. 430
Book of Nehemiah written.

336 - 323 B.C.
Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, conquers most of the known world for Greece.

331 B.C.
Persian King Darius III is defeated in battle by Alexander the Great. Persia falls.

Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king of Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He begins to force Greek culture into Judea.

Mattathias, a Jewish priest in Jerusalem, starts a revolt against the Seleucids.

Judas Maccabeus (Judah the Maccabee), son of Mattathias, leads Jewish dissidents to victory over the Seleucids. The Maccabean dynasty rules and influences the history of the land of Israel for the next roughly 130 years.

Judea gains its independence for a short period of time.

Roman troops occupy Judea in the land of Israel. Jerusalem falls.

60 - 54
A coalition between Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus governs the Roman Republic.

Julius Caesar is assassinated.

Herod the Great is appointed by the Roman Senate as King of Judea. He immediately begins to gather the forces needed to conquer Judea and Jerusalem.

Herod the Great takes Jerusalem and becomes the sole ruler of Judea.

The Roman Republic ends. Augustus Caesar becomes the first recognized Roman Emperor.

Herod the Great begins work on rebuilding Jerusalem's temple.

Jesus is born in Bethlehem in the fall of the year.

4 B.C.
Herod the Great dies (likely) during the week of February 11 to 17. The land he ruled over in Israel is divided up amond his sons Herod Antipas, Herod Archelaus and Philip the Tetrarch (Herod Philip II).

Biblical Timelines
Learn Basic Bible Timeline!
Who Preserved the Old Testament?
Flow of Old Testament History
World Empires from Babylon to Beast
Wars in the Bible!
Attacks on Jerusalem in History
When Did the Biblical Patriarchs Live?
Abraham's Journey to Canaan
Jacob and Joseph Timeline
Timeline of Philistine Wars
Timeline of the Minor Prophets
When Was the New Testament Written?
New Testament Timeline
Greatest New Testament Events!
Jesus' Life and Ministry
The Life of Apostle Paul
Timeline of Man's Last Days

Appointed Times of Jesus the Messiah
Mysterious Numbers of Hebrew Kings
Online Holy Day Calendar