Why did Jesus give it?
The story of the Rich man and Lazarus is found in the 16th chapter of the book of Luke. It is the 49th of ultimately seventy parables Jesus would give during his earthly ministry.
In the first thirteen verses of Luke 16 we find Jesus teaching his disciples about being wise stewards and that man cannot serve both God and mammon (money, earthly possessions, etc.). The Pharisees overheard what Jesus said and, knowing it also applied to them, roundly criticized him: "Now the Pharisees who were also covetous (greedy and lovers of money), heard all these things; and they ridiculed Him." (Luke 16:14, NKJV throughout)
Jesus tells the Pharisees that they seek to justify themselves before men and not God. After a few more comments he speaks a parable that is in direct response to their finding fault with what he taught.
The Parable begins
19. Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, and daily indulged himself in luxury. 20. And there was a certain poor man named Lazarus, who was laid at his porch, full of sores. (Luke 16:19-20)
Why did Christ refer to this poor beggar as Lazarus? His name means, from Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary, 'assistance of God' or it can also mean 'whom God helps.' No doubt the Pharisees immediately recognized that the rich man was symbolic of them, who had need of nothing and looked down on the poor and needy.
The Pharisees (the apostle Paul was a Pharisee before his conversion) prided themselves on their righteousness through strict obedience to their interpretation of God's law. They also despised others, especially sinners and tax collectors (see Jesus' stinging rebuke of one Pharisee in Luke 18:9-14). The irony here is that those who truly believed they served and represented God would not help someone "whom God helps." They disdained someone whom God accepted. It's no wonder that the Pharisees grew to hate Jesus.
This beggar was what we today would call a street person or "bum" who had become terminally ill. He is portrayed as having no one that could or would help him - he was entirely on his own and had nothing. Note that Lazarus was in so desperate a need that he DESIRED to eat (but did NOT get) the food scraps that fell on the floor (Luke 16:21). Because of the depth of his plight, he was willing to eat food trash since the rich man did not and would not help him AT ALL.
Here is the incredibly sad setting that has been set up for us. A desperate poor person is put in a place (by family?) where the chances of receiving at least a little charity were thought to be the greatest. He is hungry, unable to move on his own and has untreated wounds that no doubt cause him increasing pain and added misery. In stark contrast we have a rich man (symbolic of Pharisees who say they are righteous) whose house Lazarus is placed in front of. He, however, is so callused regarding the human condition that he won't even let the beggar eat his trash!
22. Now it came to pass that the poor man died, and he was carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom. And the rich man also died and was buried. (verse 22)
In time both the beggar (likely due to his illnesses and starvation) and the wealthy man die (a fate that no one can buy themselves out of!). Lazarus the beggar is "helped by God" to Abraham while the well-off man is still buried and lies in his grave.
Now note what verse 22 does NOT say! It does NOT state that the beggar went to heaven. It also does not say the rich man, immediately upon death, was tossed into some eternal Hell. The verse says the beggar is carried to "Abraham's bosom." But what does this phrase mean?
One of the definitions of "bosom" at Dictionary.com says the word represents something intimate or close, like a relationship. Likewise Lazarus is carried into a close relationship with Abraham (who represents faith in God and salvation). The beggar is allowed entrance into God's kingdom (but it doesn't state when this occurs)
We now come to the verse that, because of an erroneous translation of one word, has led countless people who study the Bible to believe in a fiery Hell where sinners suffer forever. The word translated in the NKJV, NASB, NRSV and other Bibles as 'Hades' in verse 23 and 'Hell' in the KJV and NIV translations comes from the Greek word hadës (Strong's Concordance #G86). This Greek word is the exact equivalent of the Hebrew word sheol (Strong's Concordance #H7585). Both hadës and sheol mean the GRAVE, as the following translation shows.
"And in the GRAVE he lifted up his eyes and was in torment, for he saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom." (Luke 16:23, Holy Bible in Its Original Order - A Faithful Version - See also Acts 2:27, Revelation 1:18, 20:13)
We also find proof in verse 23 that this parable is not meant to be taken literally in every last detail. Both Lazarus and the Rich Man are shown to be alive after they died. If we take verse 22 and 23 literally, it would mean the resurrection of the dead has already taken place! The Bible clearly states, however, the first resurrection of the dead is a yet future event that occurs after the Great Tribulation (see Revelation 20:4-6).
Why was the rich man tormented in the grave? It is because he saw a lake of fire before him and realized the time of his judgment before God has arrived. WHEN is he brought back to life? In the second resurrection, which occurs during the White Throne judgment (Revelation 20:11-15). The purpose of this resurrection is not just to offer all mankind a first REAL chance at salvation. Its purpose is also to punish the incorrigible wicked by having them face their judgment and be thrown into the lake of fire. Is this, then, the HELL where people suffer forever? NO! The punishment of the wicked is to die a second time - for all eternity. They will be dead forever, meaning put out of existence entirely with no chance of being brought back to life. The lake of fire totally destroys, for forever, what is thrown in it. Humans thrown in it are consumed and become eternally DEAD (Revelation 20:12, 14-15). The lake of fire is used to bring the second death, not the first chance to endlessly be tortured by a loving God.
Father Abraham! Take pity on me, and send Lazarus to dip his finger in some water and cool off my tongue (Verse 24)
Seeing Abraham the rich man appeals to him to send Lazarus to cool his tongue with a drop of water. What happens when one is suddenly so horrified with fear? His mouth goes dry. His tongue sticks to his mouth and throat! It is in such desperation that he cries for even a drop of water - which, ironically, because of his hard heart he didn't even give Lazarus who sat by his gate.
Jesus is here relating the shocking difference in the rich man's plight versus the immensely different situation of the beggar, the one whom God helped. We also read some more proof why this story should not be taken literally in all details. How could the well-off person know who Abraham was when he had been dead for 1,800+ years? Also, it would be very difficult for the rich man to recognize Lazarus in a glorified body - as he had been an emaciated pile of bones and flesh and full of sores during his physical life. The difference would have been appalling. Additionally, this verse reiterates how the roles of these two men have changed. The rich man was without need of help when Lazarus was in dire straits and now he is in a dire situation when Lazarus is without need. In effect, Christ is giving a warning to the Pharisees that their state in life could quickly change, therefore they should not be so smug and look down on others.
Remember, my son, that in your lifetime you were given all the good things, while Lazarus got all the bad things. But now he is enjoying himself here, while you are in pain. 26 Besides all that, there is a deep pit lying between us . . . (verses 25-26)
Jesus got the immediate attention of the Pharisees by using Abraham as a character in his lesson - as they considered themselves the sons of Abraham. Christ is now creating a situation that one needs to live his life correctly today, not wait until the next life to make amends. These verses show that it was impossible for Lazarus to do what the rich man wanted because of the circumstances. Of course, the basics of what Christ said here would be true. There is a vast difference between physical life, which is destructible and eternal life, which in indestructible. The gulf shows the striking difference between a righteous spirit being and a pathetic unrighteous human being.
Next, we see the rich man trying to reach out to others. He feels lost himself, so at last, though he did not reach out to others before, he now sees this as his only possible last wish before he eternally dies. To think that he is taking in the whole scene and realizing where he is in time is not rational. In his thinking, a moment ago he had need of nothing. Now he is as good as dead, but believes his brothers are still alive. He wants to save them from this place, if possible (Luke 16:27-28).
'They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.' (verse 29)
For those hearing the parable, its lesson is always in the present. In essence what Jesus was saying to the Pharisees (through Abraham) is "you (Pharisees) have Moses and the prophets" and therefore have NO excuse for your approach to life and how you treat other people.
But if someone were to rise from death and go to them, then they would turn from their sins. 31 But Abraham said, 'If they will not listen to Moses and the prophets, they will not be convinced even if someone were to rise from death.' (verses 30-31)
The rich man tries to argue that simply having the writings of Moses and the prophets is not sufficient to generate repentance. He feels that what is needed in addition to the writings is a miracle that personally warns his brothers to change. However, in the future after Jesus is resurrected and ascends to heaven, the vast majority of the New Testament church will only have these same writings on which to base repentance.
Jesus, through this parable of the rich man and Lazarus, was telling the Pharisees (who were self-righteous hypocrites) that since they did not truly believe and follow what Moses and the prophets wrote, no amount of miracles and wonders would be able to change their minds and alter how they lived life. They already had everything they needed and were rich. It was the hardness of their hearts that kept them far from God. Conversely, for those who did their best to obey God's way, seeing a miracle (from Peter, John, apostle Paul, etc.) could affirm what they read from the Bible was true, prove to them that Jesus WAS the Messiah, and ultimately lead them to repent and be converted.