Preservation of the
Old Testament Timeline

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Adam to the Patriarchs

Date (B.C.)

Person / Group

3969 - 3039 Adam
3282 - 2313 Methuselah
2913 - 1963Noah
2411 - 1811Shem

The Biblical Patriarchs to Joseph

1960 - 1785Abraham
1860 - 1680Isaac
1800 - 1653 Jacob
1709 - 1599 Joseph

Moses to the Great Assembly

1525 - 1405Moses
1405 - 515Aaronic Priesthood
586 - 189 Ezra and the Great Assembly

Jerusalem Academy to the
Destruction of Second Temple

189 B.C. - 27 A.D. Simon the Just to
birth of Jesus Christ
20 B.C. - 20 A.D. Hillel I
20 A.D. - 70 A.D. Rabban Gamaliel I
50 A.D. - 70 A.D.Rabbi Johanan b. Zakkai

Timeline of the Old Testament Minor Prophets

Map of Palestine during the Biblical patriarchs

Division of the Promised Land to the children of Israel

Location of Old Testament Events Map

Date (A.D.)

Person / Group

The Tannaim
(Scholars from Hillel I to the completion of the Mishnah)

50 - 140

Jabneh Academy

70 - 80 Rabbi Johanan b. Zakkai Rabban
80 - 115 Gamaliel II
115 - 135 Simeon b. Gamaliel II
(Rebellion of Bar Kokhba, 132 - 135)
140 - 170 Usha Academy
170 - 220 Simeon b. Gamaliel II,
Beit She'Arim Academy
220 - 250 Rabbi Simeon Judah
Ha-Nasi Sepphoris Academy
Rabbi Hanina b. Hama

The Amoraim
(Tiberian Academy)

250 - 375 Rabbi Johanan
 Rabbi Simeon b. Lakish
 Rabbi Eleazar b. Pedat
 Rabbi Ammi b. Nathan
  Rabbi Assi
 Rabbi Jonah
 Rabbi Yose
 Rabbi Mani b. Yose
 Rabbi Hiyya b. Adda

What is a CODEX?

Developed in the first century A.D., a CODEX (plural: codices) is a set of manuscripts or writings collected and placed together to form a book. Modern books, including the Bible, use the codex format. From 50 to 300 A.D. papyrus was used to create a codex. The use of paper to create a codex started around 1100 A.D.

The Lost Codices of the Masoretic Text

600Codex Severi
 Codex Hillel
 Codex Muga
 Codex Jericho
  Codex Jerushalmi

Tiberian Academy

780 - 930 -------------------------

The Ben Asher Codices of the Masoretic Text

895 Codex Cairensis
900 - 950 The Aleppo Codex
1008 Codex Leningradensis

The Petersburg Codex of the Masoretic Text

916 The Petersburg Codex
of the Prophets

The German Codices of the Masoretic Text

1100

The Erfurt Codices
Erfurt 1, Erfurt 2, Erfurt 3 pre

1105 Codex Reuchlinianus

Sephardi to Soncino

930 - 1488 -------------------------

What is CANONIZATION?

Canonization is the process by which a collection of writings comes to be considered authoritative, definitive and fixed by a religious authority.

Preservation of the Old Testament by Printing

Date (A.D.)
Name / Source of Printing

1488

Soncino O.T.
(based on German manuscripts)

1494 / 5

Brescia O.T.
(based on German manuscripts)

1516 / 17

1st Pratensis Rabbinic Bible

1524 / 25

2nd Chayyim Rabbinic Bible (Basel)

1546 / 48

Venice printing #2

1568

Venice printing #3

1616 / 19

Basel printing #1

1618 / 19

Basel printing #2
(Johan Buxtorf the Elder)

1699

Jablonski Hebraica

1720

Johann Heinrich Michaelis Hebraica
(Based on Jablonski and Erfurt manuscripts)

1724 / 25

Amsterdam printing

1839

Biblia Hebraica

1860 / 66

Warsaw printing

1869

S. Baer, Eclectic "Masoretic"
(Basis of the Jewish Publication Society of America Version (JPSA)
of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible))

1905 / 6

Biblia Hebraica 1
(Rudolph Kittel)

1908

Christian D. Ginsburg
(British and Foreign Bible Society)

1912

Biblia Hebraica 2
(Rudolph Kittel)

1926

Christian D. Ginsburg

1937

Biblia Hebraica 3
(P. Kahle)

1958

Norman H. Snaith

1966

The Hebrew University, Jerusalem
(Based on the Aleppo Codex, 900 - 950 )

1967

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
(P. Kahle, based on Codex Leningradensis, 1008)

1976

Jay P. Green, The Interlinear Bible, 3 Volumes
(Based on 1866 British - Foreign Bible Society)

Additional Study Materials
Important People in the Old Testament
Important Cities of Ancient Israel
Timeline of the Old Testament
Kings of Israel and Judah
Why did Moses NOT enter the Promised Land?
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