Preservation of the
Old Testament

Adam to the Patriarchs - (4024 B.C. - 1864 B.C.)
Date
Person / Group
4024 - 3094 B.C.   Adam
3337 - 2369 B.C.   Methuselah
2968 - 2018 B.C. Noah
2465 - 1864 B.C. Shem
   
The Patriarchs to Joseph - (2015 B.C. - 1654 B.C.)
Date
 
Person / Group
2015 - 1840 B.C. Abraham
1916 - 1736 B.C.  Isaac
1855 - 1708 B.C.   Jacob
1764 - 1654 B.C.   Joseph
   
Moses to the Great Assembly - (1565 B.C. - 189 B.C.)
Date
 
Person / Group
1565 - 1447 B.C.  Moses
1447 - 515 B.C.  Aaronic Priesthood
585 - 512 B.C.   Ezra
515 - 189 B.C.   The Great Assembly
Preservation of the
Completed Canon
Jerusalem Academy to the (Second) Destruction of the Temple
(515 B.C. - 70 A.D.)
Date
 
Person / Group
515 B.C. - 189 B.C.   Ezra to Simon the Just
189 B.C. - 26 A.D.   Simon the Just to Christ
20 B.C. - 20 A.D.   Hillel I
20 A.D. - 70 A.D.   Rabban Gamaliel I
50 A.D. - 70 A.D. Rabbi Johanan b. Zakkai
     
The Tannaim
Scholars from Hillel I to the completion of the Mishnah
(50 A.D. - 250 A.D.)
Date
 
Person / Group
50 A.D. - 140 A.D. Jabneh Academy
70 - 80 A.D. Rabbi Johanan b. Zakkai Rabban
80 - 115 A.D. Gamaliel II
115 - 135 A.D. Simeon b. Gamaliel II
(Rebellion of Bar Kokhba, 132 - 135 A.D.)
140 - 170 A.D.   Usha Academy
170 - 220 A.D.   Simeon b. Gamaliel II, Beit She'Arim Academy
220 - 250 A.D.   Rabbi Simeon Judah Ha - Nasi Sepphoris Academy
  Rabbi Hanina b. Hama
   
The Amoraim
Tiberian Academy
Date
 
Person / Group
250 A.D. - 375 A.D. Rabbi Johanan
  Rabbi Simeon b. Lakish
  Rabbi Eleazar b. Pedat
  Rabbi Ammi b. Nathan
    Rabbi Assi
  Rabbi Jonah
  Rabbi Yose
  Rabbi Mani b. Yose
  Rabbi Hiyya b. Adda
 
What is
a CODEX?
Developed in the first century A.D., a CODEX (plural: codices) is a set of manuscripts or writings collected and placed together to form a book. Modern books, including the Bible, use the codex format. From 50 to 300 A.D. papyrus was used to create a codex. The use of paper to create a codex started around 1100 A.D.
 
 
The Lost Codices of the Masoretic Old Testament
Date
 
Codex
  Codex Severi
600 A.D.  Codex Hillel
  Codex Muga
  Codex Jericho
    Codex Jerushalmi
 
Tiberian Academy
Date
 
Person / Group
780 A.D. - 930 A.D. -------------------------
 
The Ben Asher Codices of the Masoretic Old Testament
Date
 
Codex
895 A.D.  Codex Cairensis
900 - 950 A.D.  The Aleppo Codex
1008 A.D. Codex Leningradensis
 
The Petersburg Codex of the Masoretic Old Testament
Date
 
Codex
916 A.D. The Petersburg Codex of the Prophets
 
The German Codices of the Masoretic Old Testament
Date
 
Codex

1100 A.D.

 

The Erfurt Codices
Erfurt 1, Erfurt 2, Erfurt 3 pre

1105 A.D. Codex Reuchlinianus
 
Sephardi to Soncino
Date
 
Person / Group
930 A.D. - 1488 A.D. -------------------------
 
What is
CANONIZATION?
Canonization is the process by which a collection of writings comes to be considered authoritative, definitive and fixed by a religious authority.
 
Preservation of the
Old Testament by Printing
Date
 
Name / Source of Printing
1488  Soncino Old Testament
(based on German manuscripts)
1494 / 5  Brescia Old Testament
(based on German manuscripts.)
1516 / 17  1st Pratensis Rabbinic Bible
1524 / 25  2nd Chayyim Rabbinic Bible (Basel)
1546 / 48   Venice printing #2
1568 Venice printing #3
1616 / 19 Basel printing #1
1618 / 19 Basel printing #2
(Johan Buxtorf the Elder)
1699 Jablonski Hebraica
1720   Johann Heinrich Michaelis Hebraica
(Based on Jablonski and Erfurt manuscripts)
1724 / 25  Amsterdam printing
1839 Biblia Hebraica
1860 / 66 Warsaw printing
1869  S. Baer, Eclectic "Masoretic"
(Basis of the Jewish Publication Society of America Version (JPSA)
of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) )
1905 / 6 Biblia Hebraica 1
(Rudolph Kittel)
1908 Christian D. Ginsburg
(British and Foreign Bible Society)
1912  Biblia Hebraica 2
(Rudolph Kittel)
1926  Christian D. Ginsburg
1937  Biblia Hebraica 3
(P. Kahle)
1958  Norman H. Snaith
1966 The Hebrew University, Jerusalem
(Based on the Aleppo Codex, 900 - 950 A.D.)
1967 Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
(P. Kahle, based on Codex Leningradensis, 1008 A.D.)
1976  Jay P. Green, The Interlinear Bible, 3 Volumes
(Based on 1866 British and Foreign Bible Society)
 
Researched and Compiled by:  Carl Franklin
edited and notes added by BibleStudy.org
 
Additional Study Materials
from BibleStudy.org
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