Kings of Israel and Judah

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Old Testament Israel was unified and ruled by one human for only 120 years of its history. From 1050 to 930 B.C. Kings Saul (from the tribe of Benjamin), David (from the tribe of Judah), and Solomon each ruled for forty years. After Solomon's death the kingdom was divided into two distinct entities. God himself told Solomon, the last ruler over a united Israel, that the nation would split and generate kings from at least two distinct family lines, because he caused the people to worship many false gods.

9. And the LORD was angry with Solomon . . . 10. And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods; and he did not keep that which the LORD commanded. 11. And the LORD said to Solomon, "Since this has been done by you . . . I will surely tear the kingdom from you and will give it to your servant (Jeroboam, see 1 Kings 11:9 - 11, HBFV, see also verses 29 to 39)

The ultimate catalyst God used to split his people in two was Rehoboam's unwillingness to lift the heavy taxation implemented by his father (1 Kings 12). Rehoboam, after the nation split, ruled over only three tribes referred to as the Kingdom of Judah.

Date
Kings of
United Israel
Years Ruled

1050 - 1010

Saul

40

1010 - 970David40

970 - 930

Solomon

40


Date
Kings of Israel
Years Ruled
Rating

930 - 909

Jeroboam I

22

Bad

909 - 908
Nadab
2
Bad

908 - 886

Baasha

24

Bad

886 - 885
Elah
2
Bad

885

Zimri

7 days

Bad

885 - 880Tibni *5?

885 - 874

Omri *

12

Extra Bad

874 - 853
22
Worst

853 - 852

Ahaziah

2

Bad

852 - 841
Joram
12
Bad mostly

841 - 814

Jehu

28

Bad mostly

814 - 798
Jehoahaz
17
Bad

798 - 782

Jehoash

16

Bad

793 - 753
Jeroboam II
(c.r. 793 - 782)
41
Bad

753

Zechariah

6 months

Bad

752
Shallum
1 month
Bad

752 - 742

Menahem *

10

Bad

752 - 732
Pekah *
20
Bad

742 - 740

Pekahiah *

2

Bad

732 - 723
Hoshea
9
Bad

In 723 B.C. Samaria, capital of the Northern Ten Tribes of Israel, falls to Assyrian King Shalmaneser V. The Israelites go into Assyrian captivity.

* After the death of Zimri in 885 B.C. Tibni ruled half the nation and Omri ruled the other half (1 Kings 16:21 - 22). Except for this brief mention in Scripture nothing else is known about Tibni. After his death Omri became sole king of the Northern kingdom in 880 B.C. Pekah began as a ruling rival of Menahem in 752 B.C. This rivalry lasted ten years (2 Kings 15:17) until Menahem's death in 742. From 742 to 740 Pekah and Pekahiah maintained rival thrones (15:23), with Pekah beginning his sole rule of the Northern kingdom in 740 B.C. with his assassination of Pekahiah. Pekah's reign ended when he was assassinated by Hoshea in 732 (15:30).


Date
Kings of Judah
Years Ruled
Rating

930 - 913

Rehoboam

17

Bad mostly

913 - 910
Abijah
3
Bad mostly

910 - 869

Asa

41

Good

872 - 848
Jehoshaphat
(c.r. 872 - 869)
25
Good

853 - 841

Jehoram
(c.r. 853 - 848)

8

Bad

841
Ahaziah
1
Bad

841 - 835

QUEEN Athaliah

7

Devilish

835 - 796
Joash
40
Good mostly

796 - 767

Amaziah

29

Good mostly

792 - 740
Azariah (Uzziah)
(c.r. 792 - 767)
52
Good

750 - 732

Jotham
(c.r. 750 - 740)

16

Good

735 - 715
Ahaz
(c.r. 735 - 732)
16
Wicked

715 - 686

Hezekiah

29

Best

696 - 642
Manasseh
(c.r. 696 - 686)
55
Worst

642 - 640

Amon

2

Worst

640 - 609
Josiah
31
Best

609

Jehoahaz

3 months

Bad

609 - 598
Jehoiakim
11
Wicked

598 - 597

Jehoiachin

3 months

Bad

597 - 586
Zedekiah
11
Bad

In 597 B.C. Jerusalem falls at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar captures Jehoiachin and takes him as prisoner to Babylon. Zedekiah is set up as a puppet king over Judah.

In 586 B.C. King Nebuchadnezzar lays siege to Jerusalem. He destroys the city and burns its temple. The destruction of the temple starts on the 9th of Ab (Hebrew month) and completes on the 10th. The 9th of Ab will also be the day Jerusalem's SECOND temple (Herod's temple) will be completely destroyed in 70 A.D.

Additional Study Materials
Emblems of Ancient Israel
Kingdom of Judah Map
Crowns in the Bible

Notes
All dates are B.C.

C.R. stands for coregency, which is
the period of rule when a son sits
on the throne with his father.


Kings of Israel and Judah
Bibliography

Holy Bible, a Faithful Version
Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings


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