The Meaning of Numbers: The Number 123
The possible meaning of the number 123 is derived from Bible history and the occurrence of certain words.
Aaron, like his brother Moses, was not allowed to enter the Promised Land (Numbers 20:22 - 24). He died on Mount Hor, in the middle of July in 1406 B.C., at the age of 123 (33:39). He passed away a few months after his sister Miriam perished (20:23 - 28).
God commanded ancient Israel to observe what is known as a Sabbatical year (Exodus 23:10 - 11, Leviticus 25:1 - 7, 19 - 23). The beginning of this special period was proclaimed on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) at the start of every seventh year (Deuteronomy 15:1 - 4). A Biblical Sabbatical year ran from September 17 in 123 A.D. to October 5 in 124.
Isaac's name is recorded in 123 verses in the King James translation. It is, however, a long way from being the most frequently one in Scripture. The most mentioned name is David that appears in 968 verses!
Appearances of Number One Hundred Twenty Three
There are only two words in Scripture's original languages that are recorded exactly 123 times. The first, qahal (Strong's Concordance #H6951), means an assemblage, company or congregation of people. While it usually is translated "congregation" or "assembly" in the KJV, its first two uses are as "multitude" and "company."
And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan . . . And God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest be a multitude (qahal) of people . . . (Genesis 28:1, 3, KJV).
And God appeared unto Jacob again, when he came out of Padanaram, and blessed him. And God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob: thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name: and he called his name Israel.
And God said unto him, I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company (qahal) of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins . . . (Genesis 35:9 - 11, KJV).
The Greek archiereus (Strong's #G749) appears 123 times in the original manuscripts of the New Testament. It usually is used as a reference to Jerusalem's High Priest, although the word can be used to refer to chief priests as well.
Number 123 and the Psalms
Psalm 123 is one of the tiniest psalms with four verses. Still smaller chapters are Psalms 131, 133 and 134 with three verses and Psalm 117 with only two!
Unto You I lift up my eyes, O You Who dwell in the heavens. Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the hand of their masters, as the eyes of a maiden unto the hand of her mistress; so our eyes look to the Lord our God until He shall have mercy upon us.
Be gracious unto us, O Lord, be gracious unto us; for we are exceedingly filled with contempt. Our soul is exceedingly filled with the scorning of those who are at ease, with the contempt of the proud oppressors (Psalm 123, HBFV).
More Info on Biblical Meaning of 123
The numbers 3 and 41 are factors of 123.
The first chapter of Ephesians, written by the Apostle Paul, is the only one in the Bible with exactly 23 verses (123).
The Parthian Empire reached its peak of the land it controlled during the reign of Mithridates II from 123 to 88 B.C. At its height, the empire governed 1.1 million square miles (2.848 million square kilometers).