Meaning of Numbers: The Number 180
The possible meaning of the number 180 is derived from Bible history and the occurrence of certain original language words.
The word ephrayim, Strong's #H669, is recorded 180 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. It is found the most in the book of Minor Prophet Hosea (37 times) followed by the book of Judges (27). In the King James, it is always translated as the name Ephraim, the younger of Joseph's two sons. Ephraim is commonly used in Scripture to refer to the Kingdom of Israel (the northern ten tribes, Isaiah 7:2, 8, 9:9).
And unto Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim (ephrayim), which Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On bare unto him (Genesis 46:20, KJV).
Melek, Strong's #H4430, is an Aramaic word found 180 times in the original manuscripts of the Old Testament. Surprisingly, it is used in only two books. The book of Daniel records it 135 times while Ezra uses it 45 times. It is usually translated as "king" as in the book of Daniel.
And the Chaldeans spoke to the king (Nebuchadnezzar) in Aramaic, "O king (melek), live forever. Tell your servants the dream, and we will reveal the meaning." (Daniel 2:4, HBFV).
The English word "love" occurs 311 times in the King James translation. 180 of these occurrences are in the New Testament. The word, not surprisingly, is found the most in the Apostle John's writings of 1John (33) followed by his gospel (22).
Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends (John 15:13, KJV).
Appearances of Number One Hundred Eighty
How much wine did Jesus miraculously create in his first recorded miracle at a Cana wedding (John 2:1 - 11)? Some Biblical commentaries state it was 120 U.S. gallons (about 454 liters) while others believe it could have been as high as 180 gallons (about 681 liters)!
Isaac, the son promised to Abraham and Sarah, died at the age of 180 in 1680 B.C. (Genesis 35:28 - 29). He ended up living longer than his father Abraham (175) or his son Jacob (147). Jacob, the father of the twelve tribes of Israel, was 120 years old when Isaac died. Interestingly, Jacob was born in 1800 B.C., along with his twin brother Esau, which is a multiple of the number 180.
Nerva, after Domitian's death, takes over as Roman Emperor in late 96 A.D. His short reign (96 to 98) begins what is called the "five good emperors" period or Pax Romana that would last until 180 A.D. These emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius) generally carried out moderate policies that enabled the Roman Empire to achieve unprecedented territorial, economic, and cultural expansion.
Invasion and Number 180
King Xerxes I the Great (Ahasuerus in the King James) ruled the Medo-Persian Empire from 485 to 465 B.C. According to the book of Esther, in the third year of his reign, he held a great feast in Shushan for his army as well as all his princes, officials and other important people (Esther 1:2 - 3). The festivities lasted for 180 days.
In the third year of his reign, he made a feast for all his princes and his servants; the army of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, were before him, when he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the splendor of his excellent majesty many days - a hundred and eighty (180) days (Esther 1:3 - 4, HBFV).
The reason for the lengthy feast was likely to prepare for an invasion of Greece.
"Though not stated, this banquet probably corresponds to the great feast Xerxes gave when he was planning to invade Greece. According to Herodotus it took Xerxes four years (starting in 485) to get ready for the invasion he launched in 481.
"The Book of Esther says nothing about Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but other sources state that he wanted to avenge his father's defeat at Marathon near Athens" (The Bible Knowledge Commentary).
More Info on Biblical Meaning of 180
A circle contains 360 degrees, which means a half-circle is 180 degrees.
180 is equal to 2 X 2 (or 2 squared) x 3 x 3 (or 3 squared) x 5. The number can also be arrived at by adding 12 x 12 (12 squared) to 6 x 6 (or 6 squared).
Marcus Aurelius ruled over the Roman Empire as Emperor from 161 to 180 A.D. During his reign the persecution of Christians was increased, as described by Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
"The cruelties used in this persecution were such that many of the spectators shuddered with horror at the sight . . . Some of the martyrs were obliged to pass, with their already wounded feet, over thorns, nails, sharp shells, etc. upon their points, others were scourged until their sinews and veins lay bare, and after suffering the most excruciating tortures that could be devised, they were destroyed by the most terrible deaths." (Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Chapter 2).